All posts by Joe Kaminski

Kawasaki E3/E7/E9 Controllers

Being a leader of the robotics industry for over 50 years, Kawasaki has developed one of the most complete lines of e-controllers on the market. All of these controllers are suited with a wide array of features including:

  • High powered CPU performence
  • Large, easy to use LCD Display
  • Optimized key layout
  • Easily accessible safety switches

The E76/77 family of controllers are very compact and used for smaller robot arms. One of these arms are the RS003N Robot, which has a maximum payload of 3kg and has horizontal and vertical reaches of 620mm and 967mm, respectively. The controllers with these robots specialize in assembly and material handling applications.

The E9 family of robotic teach pedants are also built very compact, however these devices are typically used in medium-duty applications. Unlike the other two families of controllers, the E9 family features an open structure system with a direct cooling system. However, like the E7 and E3 families, the enclosed structure with indirect cooling is an available option. The E9 family takes full advantage of the digital servo drive powering it to have a maximum payload capacity of 40kg.

E30/32/33/34 controllers at their base are very alike the E76/77 controllers but with more power. These devices are not as compact as the previous devices we have discussed, however the reason being they are highly expandable and are easier to maintain. Features such as Kawasaki’s K-Logic sequencer software allow the addition of up to 16 total controllable axes. The E3 family of Kawasaki e-controllers are able to handle the following maximum payloads:

  • E30 – 145 kg
  • E32 – 180 kg
  • E33 – 195 kg
  • E34 – 180 kg

If you are interested in learning how to purchase the robot arm, the controller, or any other part/device that goes into an industrial robotic set-up, please call MRO Electric and Supply at (800)691-8511 or email us at sales@mroelectric.com and we will help you get what you need.

3HAC028357-001

ABB Robotics 3HAC028357-001 Teach Pendant

The 3HAC028357-001 is a modern ABB Robotics Teach Pendant designed to be used with the IRC5 Industrial Robot Control, one of the most popular robotics controls on the market. Also known as the “FlexPendant”, the 3HAC028357-001 is characterized by its clean, color touch screen-based design and 3D joystick for intuitive interaction.

The 3HAC028357-001 TPU (or teach pendant unit) is a hand held operator unit used to perform many of the tasks involved when operating a robot system: running programs, jogging the manipulator, modifying robot programs and so on.

The FlexPendant is designed for continuous operation in harsh industrial environment. Its touch screen is easy to clean and resistant to water, oil and accidental welding splashes.

 

ABB FlexPendant

 

The 3HAC028357-001 replaces the legacy 3HAC023195-001 teach pendant.

The standard cost for a new ABB 3HAC028357-001 direct from the manufacturer or authorized distributor is typically in the $6000-7,000 range. MRO Electric is able to supply these pendants at a much lower price point, and we warranty all of our robotics parts for 12 months.

If you would like a free quote on a replacement ABB 3HAC028357-001, please email us at sales@mroelectric.com or call 800-691-8511.

KUKA Controllers

KUKA Error Codes

The list below contains common KUKA Error Codes. These codes are applicable to all KUKA controllers, including the KRC1, KRC2, KRC3, and the KRC4.

Common KUKA Error Codes

  • Error Code 14 – SOFTPLC: @P1@
  • Error Code 284 – Accu–voltage at <kps number> below <voltage level> during last buffering
    • Cause
      • The accu voltage was too low at the last switch off to buffer the
        shutdown.
      • The accu is not charged correctly anymore.
      • The accu is to old or broken.
    • Effect
      • Eventually loss of reference.
      • Cold boot.
      • Active commands inhibited
    • Remedy
      • Exchange accu.
  • Error Code 310 – Safety Circuit for drives not ready
    • Cause
      • Safety circuit is telling drives not to move.
      • Faulty X11
      • Faulty ESC board
      • Faulty KPS 600
    • Remedy
      • Check ESC monitor and other messages to narrow down the root cause with the safety circuit
      • Replace faulty components
  • Error Code 364 – Unknown operation mode
    • Possible Cause
      • Faulty KPS 600 Drive
    • Remedy
      • Replace KPS 600
  • Error Code 420 – Local protective stop (QE)
    • Possible Cause
      • Faulty KPS600 Drive
    • Remedy
      • Replace KPS600
  • Error Code 1033 – ERROR ON READING, DRIVER: ** **
  • Error Code 1034 – ERROR ON WRITING, DRIVER: ** **
  • Error Code 1133 – GEAR TORQUE EXCEEDED AXIS
    • Cause
      • The calculated gear torque is larger than the maximum permissible gear torque.
    • Monitor
      • Cyclic in interpolation cycle.
    • Effect
      • Motion and program are stopped.
    • Remedy
      • Reteach points.
  • Error Code 1239 – ACKN. SYNCHRONISATION ERROR DRIVE
  • Error Code 1376 – ACTIVE COMMANDS INHIBITED
    • Cause
      • A message which causes the active commands to be inhibited has been set.
    • Monitor
      • In command processing.
    • Effect
      • Command is not executed.
    • Remedy
      • Acknowledge active messages in the message window.
  • Error Code 2029 – SYNTAX ERROR IN KUKA MODULE
  • Error Code 2135 – NAME NOT DECLARED AS SUBROUTINE
  • Error Code 6502 – Error during reading INI file init/iosys.ini 1
    • Remedy
      • Check iosys.ini file
      • Ensure correct DeviceNET driver is installed
      • Check data cable between robot / cabinet
  • Error Code 10053
    • Remedy
      • Check fan to ensure it isn’t vibrating. This could be causing the Mfc card to move into the motherboard’s slot.

 

MRO Electric carries replacement KUKA Robotics parts such as teach pendants, drives, motors, and more. To request a quote, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.

KUKA teach pendant

KUKA Teach Pendants

MRO Electric and Supply distributes a variety of KUKA Teach Pendants for KRC1, KRC2, and KRC3 controls. We also can supply the new KRC4 smartPAD. The smartPAD pendant  is the latest type of KUKA teach pendant, designed to allow users to perform even the most complex operating tasks with ease – even those with little experience.  It features an 8.4″ display size with a industrial touch screen.

KUKA smartPAD Teach Pendant

The ergonomic design of the KUKA smartPAD creates a pendant with reduced weight and an anatomically comfortable operation. It can be used to operate all KUKA robots that have a KR C4 controller. Its 6D mouse allows for movement and reorientation of the robot on all axes.

All smartPADs are programmed using the KRL – KUKA programming language. This easy to learn robotics language is very intuitive, and can be used to create customized robotic motions with ease. You can also synchronize your programming with up to 6 KUKA robots. The other major benefit of the smartPAD teach pendant is that  it can be hot swapped at any time from a KR C4 controller – just simply plug it in and use.

Legacy KUKA Teach Pendants

MRO Electric also distributes a number of legacy KUKA teach pendants. We recognize that there are still a variety of older KUKA controllers still in use today. Rather than having to upgrade your control system when one of your pendants fail, we can ship you a replacement pendant to minimize any downtime.

If for some reason our stock is depleted, we can usually repair your KUKA pendant in as little as 3-5 days. Visit our main KUKA product page to see all the KUKA teach pendants that we can supply or repair.

For more information or to request a quote on a replacement pendant or panel, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.

6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0

Siemens 6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0 TP1200 Comfort Panel

6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0 TP1200 Overview

The Siemens 6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0 is a 12 inch SIMATIC HMI with touch operation and a Widescreen TFT display. Its screen is a capable of 16 million colors.

Additionally, the 6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0 has a PROFINET interface, MPI/PROFIBUS DP interface, 12 MB configuration memory, Windows CE 6.0, and is configurable from WinCC Comfort V11.

6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0

6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0  Specifications

Design of display TFT
Screen diagonal 12.1 in
Display width 261.1 mm
Display height 163.2 mm
Number of colors 16777216
Resolution (pixels)
horizontal image resolution 1280
vertical image resolution 800
Backlighting
MTBF backlighting (at 25 °C) 80000 h
Backlight dimmable Yes ; 0-100 %
Number of function keys 0
Keys with LED No
System keys No
Numeric/alphabetical input
Numeric keyboard Yes ; Onscreen keyboard
alphanumeric keyboard Yes ; Onscreen keyboard
Touch operation Yes
Expansions for operator control of the process  
DP direct LEDs (LEDs as S7 output I/O)
F1…Fx 0
Direct keys (keys as S7 input I/O)
F1…Fx 0
Direct keys (touch buttons as S7 input I/O) 40
Installation type/mounting
Mounting in portrait format possible Yes
Mounting in landscape format possible Yes
Supply voltage
Type of supply voltage DC
Rated value (DC) 24 V
permissible range, lower limit (DC) 19.2 V
permissible range, upper limit (DC) 28.8 V
Input current
Current consumption (rated value) 0.85 A
Inrush current A²s 0.5 A²·s
Power
Power consumption, typ. 20 W
Processor
X86 Yes
ARM No
Memory
Flash Yes
RAM Yes
usable memory for user data 12 Mbyte
Type of output
Info LED No
Power LED No
Error LED No
Acoustics
Buzzer No
Speaker Yes
Time of day
Hardware clock (real-time clock) Yes
Software clock No
battery-backed Yes ; Back-up duration typically 6 weeks
synchronizable Yes
Interfaces
Number of RS 485 interfaces 1 ; RS 422/485 combined
Number of USB interfaces 2 ; USB 2.0
Number of USB Mini B interfaces 1 ; 5-pole
Number of SD card slots 2
Number of parallel interfaces 0
Number of 20 mA interfaces (TTY) 0
Number of RS 232 interfaces 0
Number of RS 422 interfaces 1
Number of other interfaces 0
With software interfaces No
Industrial Ethernet
Number of industrial Ethernet interfaces 2
Industrial Ethernet status LED 2
Number of ports of the integrated switch 2
Protocols
PROFINET Yes
PROFINET IO Yes
IRT, supported Yes ; As of WinCC V12
MRP supported Yes ; As of WinCC V12
PROFIBUS Yes
MPI Yes
Protocols (Ethernet)
TCP/IP Yes
DHCP Yes
SNMP Yes
DCP Yes
LLDP Yes
WEB characteristics
HTTP Yes
HTTPS No
HTML Yes
XML No
CSS Yes
Active X No
JavaScript Yes
Java VM No
Further protocols
CAN No
MODBUS Yes
EtherNet/IP Yes
Degree and class of protection
IP (at the front) IP65
Enclosure Type 4 at the front Yes
Enclosure Type 4x at the front Yes
IP (rear) IP20
Standards, approvals, certificates
CE mark Yes
KC approval Yes
cULus Yes
RCM (former C-TICK) Yes
Marine approval
Germanischer Lloyd (GL) Yes ; As of product version: 10
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Yes ; As of product version: 10
Bureau Veritas (BV) Yes ; As of product version: 10
Det Norske Veritas (DNV) Yes ; As of product version: 10
Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) Yes ; As of product version: 10
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Class NK) Yes ; As of product version: 10
Polski Rejestr Statkow (PRS) No
Use in hazardous areas
ATEX Zone 2 Yes
ATEX Zone 22 Yes
IECEx Zone 2 Yes
IECEx Zone 22 Yes
cULus Class I Zone 1 No
cULus Class I Zone 2, Division 2 Yes
FM Class I Division 2 Yes
Mounting position vertical
maximum permissible angle of inclination without external ventilation 35 °
Operating temperature
Operation (vertical installation)
in vertical mounting position, minimum 0 °C
in vertical mounting position, maximum 50 °C ; (55 °C, see entry ID:64847814)
Operation (max. tilt angle)
at maximum tilt angle, minimum 0 °C
at maximum tilt angle, maximum 40 °C
Operation (vertical installation, portrait format)
in vertical mounting position, minimum 0 °C
in vertical mounting position, maximum 40 °C
Operation (max. tilt angle, portrait format)
at maximum tilt angle, minimum 0 °C
at maximum tilt angle, maximum 35 °C
Storage/transport temperature
min. -20 °C
max. 60 °C
Relative humidity
Operation, max. 90%
Operating systems
Windows CE Yes
proprietary No
Executable with configuration operating system
other No
Configuration
Message indicator Yes
With alarm logging system (incl. buffer and acknowledgment) Yes
Process value display (output) Yes
Process value default (input) possible Yes
Recipe administration Yes
Configuration software
STEP 7 Basic (TIA Portal) No
STEP 7 Professional (TIA Portal) No
WinCC flexible Compact No
WinCC flexible Standard No
WinCC flexible Advanced No
WinCC Basic (TIA Portal) No
WinCC Comfort (TIA Portal) Yes ; from V11
WinCC Advanced (TIA Portal) Yes ; from V11
WinCC Professional (TIA Portal) Yes ; from V11
Languages
Online languages
Number of online/runtime languages 32
Project languages
Languages per project 32
Project languages
D Yes
GB Yes
F Yes
I Yes
E Yes
Chinese traditional Yes
Chinese simplified Yes
DK Yes
FIN Yes
GR Yes
J Yes
KP/ROK Yes
NL Yes
N Yes
PL Yes
P Yes
RUS Yes
S Yes
CZ Yes
SK Yes
TR Yes
H Yes
Functionality under WinCC (TIA Portal)
Libraries Yes
Applications/options
Internet Explorer Yes
Pocket Word Yes
Pocket Excel Yes
PDF Viewer Yes
Media Player Yes
SIMATIC WinCC Sm@rtServer Yes
SIMATIC WinCC Audit Yes
Number of Visual Basic Scripts Yes
Task planner
time-controlled Yes
task-controlled Yes
Help system
Number of characters per info text 70
Message system
Number of alarm classes 32
Number of bit messages 4000
Number of analog messages 200
S7 alarm number procedure Yes
System messages HMI Yes
System messages, other (SIMATIC S7, Sinumerik, Simotion, etc.) Yes
Number of characters per message 80
Number of process values per message 8
Acknowledgment groups Yes
Message indicator Yes
Message buffer
Number of entries 1024
Circulating buffer Yes
retentive Yes
maintenance-free Yes
Recipe administration
Number of recipes 300
Data records per recipe 500
Entries per data record 1000
Size of internal recipe memory 2 Mbyte
Recipe memory expandable Yes
Variables
Number of variables per device 2048
Number of variables per screen 400
Limit values Yes
Multiplexing Yes
Structures Yes
Arrays Yes
Number of configurable images 500
Permanent window/default Yes
Global image Yes
Start screen configurable Yes
Image selection by PLC Yes
Image number in the PLC Yes
Image objects
Number of objects per image 400
Text fields Yes
I/O fields Yes
Graphic I/O fields (graphics list) Yes
symbolic I/O fields (text list) Yes
Date/time fields Yes
Switch Yes
Buttons Yes
Graphic display Yes
Icons Yes
geometric objects Yes
Complex image objects
Number of complex objects per screen 20
Alarm view Yes
Trend view Yes
User view Yes
Status/control Yes
Sm@rtClient view Yes
Recipe view Yes
f(x) trend view Yes
System diagnostics view Yes
Media Player Yes
Bar graphs Yes
Sliders Yes
Pointer instruments Yes
Analog/digital clock Yes
Lists
Number of text lists per project 500
Number of entries per text list 500
Number of graphics lists per project 500
Number of entries per graphics list 500
Archiving
Number of archives per device 50
Number of entries per archive 20000
Message archive Yes
Process value archive Yes
Archiving methods
Sequential archive Yes
Short-term archive Yes
Memory location
Memory card Yes
USB memory Yes
Ethernet Yes
Data storage format
CSV Yes
TXT Yes
RDB Yes
Security
Number of user groups 50
Number of user rights 32
Number of users 50
Password export/import Yes
SIMATIC Logon Yes
Logging through printer
Alarms Yes
Report (shift log) Yes
Hardcopy Yes
Electronic print to file Yes ; pdf, html
Character sets
Keyboard fonts
US English Yes
Fonts
Tahoma Yes
Arial Yes
Courier New Yes
WinCC Standard Yes
Ideographic languages Yes
Font size freely scalable Yes
additional character sets loadable Yes
Transfer (upload/download)
MPI/PROFIBUS DP Yes
USB Yes
Ethernet Yes
using external storage medium No
Process coupling
S7-1200 Yes
S7-1500 Yes
S7-200 Yes
S7-300/400 Yes
LOGO! Yes
WinAC Yes
SINUMERIK Yes
SIMOTION No ; With WinCC, subsequent version
Allen Bradley (EtherNet/IP) Yes
Allen Bradley (DF1) Yes
Mitsubishi (MC TCP/IP) Yes
Mitsubishi (FX) Yes
OMRON (FINS TCP) No
OMRON (LINK/Multilink) Yes
Modicon (Modbus TCP/IP) Yes
Modicon (Modbus) Yes
OPC UA Client Yes
OPC UA Server No
Service tools/configuration aids
Clean screen Yes
Touch calibration Yes
Backup/Restore manually Yes
Backup/Restore automatically Yes
Simulation Yes
Device switchover Yes
Delta transfer Yes
Peripherals/Options
Peripherals
Printer Yes
Multimedia Card Yes
SD card Yes
USB memory Yes
Network camera Yes
Mechanics/material
Type of housing (front)
Plastic No
Aluminum Yes
Stainless steel No
Dimensions
Width of the housing front 330 mm
Height of housing front 241 mm
Mounting cutout/device depth (W x H x D)
Mounting cutout, width 310 mm
Mounting cutout, height 221 mm
Overall depth 65 mm
Weights
Weight without packaging 2.8 kg
Weight incl. packaging 3.5 kg
Status Jul 30, 2014

 

MRO Electric and Supply as new and refurbished SIMATIC 6AV2124-0MC01-0AX0 HMIs available, as well as other Siemens HMIs. We can also repair most panels.

For more information to to request a quote, email sales@mroelectric.com or call 800-691-8511.

FANUC M-Codes List for 16i, 18i, and More

M-code are CNC program instructions which help machinists and CNC programmers control CNC hardware like chuck, tailstock, quill, coolant. Here are listed M-code which are mostly used on 16i and 18i FANUC Controls.

Auxiliary Function (M Function)

When a numeral is specified following address M, code signal and a strobe signal are sent to the machine. The machine uses these signals to turn on or off its functions. Usually, only one M code can be specified in one block.

In some cases, however, up to three M codes can be specified for some types of machine tools. Which M code corresponds to which machine function is determined by the machine tool builder.

The machine processes all operations specified by M codes except those specified by M98, M99,M198 or called subprogram(Parameter No.6071 to 6079), or called custom macro (Parameter No.6080 to 6089). Refer to the machine tool builder’s instruction manual for details.

The following M codes have special meanings:

  • M02, M03 (End of Program)
    • This indicates the end of the main program Automatic operation is stopped and the CNC unit is reset.
    • This differs with the machine tool builder. After a block specifying the end of the program is executed, control returns to the start of the program. Bit 5 of parameter 3404 (M02) or bit 4 of parameter 3404 (M30) can be used to disable M02, M30 from returning control to the start of the program.
  • M00 (Program Stop)
    • Automatic operation is stopped after a block containing M00 is executed. When the program is stopped, all existing modal information remains unchanged. The automatic operation can be restarted by actuating the cycle operation. This differs with the machine tool builder.
  • M01 (Optional Stop)
    • Similarly to M00, automatic operation is stopped after a block containing M01 is executed. This code is only effective when the Optional Stop switch on the machine operator’s panel has been pressed.
  • M98 (Calling of Sub-Program)
    • This code is used to call a subprogram. The code and strobe signals are not sent.
  • M99 (End of Subprogram)
    • This code indicates the end of a subprogram. M99 execution returns control to the main program. The code and strobe signals are not sent.
  • M198 (Calling a Subprogram)
    • This code is used to call a subprogram of a file in the external input/output function. See the description of the subprogram call function (III–4.7) for details.

 

Multiple M Commands in a Single Block

In general, only one M code can be specified in a block. However, up to three M codes can be specified at once in a block by setting bit 7 (M3B) of parameter No. 3404 to 1. Up to three M codes specified in a block are simultaneously output to the machine. This means that compared with the conventional method of a single M command in a single block, a shorter cycle time can be realized in machining.

CNC allows up to three M codes to be specified in one block. However, some M codes cannot be specified at the same time due to mechanical operation restrictions. For detailed information about the mechanical operation restrictions on simultaneous specification of multiple M codes in one block, refer to the manual of each machine tool builder. M00, M01, M02, M30, M98, M99, or M198 must not be specified together with another M code. Some M codes other than M00, M01, M02, M30, M98, M99, and M198 cannot be specified together with other M codes; each of those M codes must be specified in a single block.

Such M codes include these which direct the CNC to perform internal operations in addition to sending the M codes themselves to the machine. To be specified, such M codes are M codes for calling program numbers 9001 to 9009 and M codes for disabling advance reading (buffering) of subsequent blocks. Meanwhile, multiple of M codes that direct the CNC only to send the M codes themselves (without performing internal operations ) can be specified in a single block.

M Code Group Check Function

The M code group check function checks if a combination of multiple M codes (up to three M codes) contained in a block is correct.

This function has two purposes. One is to detect if any of the multiple M codes specified in a block include an M code that must be specified alone. The other purpose is to detect if any of the multiple M codes specified in a block include M codes that belong to the same group. In either of these cases, P/S alarm No. 5016 is issued. For details on group data setting, refer to the manual available from the machine tool builder.

  • M Code Setting
    • Up to 500 M codes can be specified. In general, M0 to M99 are always specified. M codes from M100 and up are optional.
  • Group Numbers
    • Group numbers can be set from 0 to 127. Note, however, that 0 and 1 have special meanings. Group number 0 represents M codes that need not be checked. Group number 1 represents M codes that must be specified alone.

 

KUKA Robot Arms | Available Now at MRO Electric and Supply

KUKA Robot Arm


Electronic Tutorials and Robotics Guide

MRO Electric and Supply distributes a variety of new and refurbished KUKA Robot arms.

We repaint and rebuild all of our refurbished robotics arms, as well as purge and replace the grease according to the manufacturer’s specifications.

We supply KUKA arms and wrists from a number of robots, including the following:

  • KR15
  • KR30
  • KR100
  • KR150
  • KR200
  • KR350
  • KR3
  • KR1000
  • KR10
  • KR16
  • KR120
  • KR60
  • KR140
  • KR360
  • KR16-2
  • KR30-3
  • KR90
  • KR180
  • KR60
  • KR500
  • Any Many More!

 

Most KUKA robotic arms are made up of 4-6 joints, and can be used for many different applications such as welding, material handling, material removal, and more.  Most KUKA robot arms are made from aluminum is built from the base up, ending with the wrist and whichever end effect is needed to help the arm perform its given application. KUKA was one of the first companies to use aluminum in robot arm design, which makes KUKA manipulators one of the fastest and lightest on the market.They also introduced a horizontal balancing spring on axis 2 before the other robot manufacturers, a design that has now been widely adopted.

Their large arms are typically used to lift heavy payloads are sometimes ran by hydraulic and pneumatic methods.

KUKA is known for their orange arms that have been used to build cars for Tesla and Porsche. They were also seen in the 2002 James Bond film Die Another Day.

MRO Electric and Supply has a warehouse full of many types of KUKA arms and wrists. Give us a call today if you need a replacement and we can usually ship you one same-day! You can also email sales@mroelectric.com for a quote.

 

PLC Security

plc security

PLC Security

Programmable logic controllers, also known as PLCs, initially came about in the late 1960s. PLCs were designed to replace relay-based machine control systems in the major U.S. vehicle manufacturing space. The relay-based control systems were considered hard to use and were disliked amongst those in the automation and manufacturing in.

In 1968, Dick Morley of Bedford Associates in Massachusetts designed the Modular Digital Controller, later dubbed the Modicon. After the Modicon 084’s initiation into the world, there was no looking back to those relay-based control systems. Be sure to check out our article covering Modicon PLC history to learn more.

PLCs are user-friendly microprocessor-based specialty computers that carry out control functions, many of which are of high levels of complexity. They are engineered to endure harsh and strenuous situations such as in heated, cooled and even moist environments. Used for automation usually in the industrial electromechanical space, PLCs are computers that deal with the controlling of machinery, often on  the following:

  • factory assembly lines
  • power stations
  • distribution systems
  • power generation systems
  • gas turbines

PLCs are programmed using a computer language. Written on a computer, the program is then downloaded to the PLC via a cable. These programs are stored in the PLCs memory. The hard-wired logic is exchanged for the program fed by its user during the transition between relay controls to PLC. The manufacturing and process control industries have gotten to take advantage of PLC applications-oriented software since Modicon PLCs inception.

plc security
PLC Functions and Directions

PLCs use programmable memory in order to store particular functions and directions. Some functions and directions would include:

  • on control
  • off control
  • timing
  • sequencing
  • counting
  • arithmetic
  • data manipulation
PLC Types

Understanding the different types of PLCs will be very helpful when looking into PLC security.

The numerous types of PLCs can be organized into three principal categories:

  • Advanced PLC: Advanced PLCs offer the greatest processing power out of all of the PLC types. They feature a larger memory capacity, higher input/output (I/O) expandability, and greater networking options.
  • Compact Controller: Logic Controllers are increased intermediate level offerings with an increased set of instructions and a greater input/output (I/O) than a run-of-the-mill logic controller
  • Logic Controler: A logic controller is often referred to as a ‘smart relay’. They are generally straightforward to use and considered a good place to begin when becoming acquainted with PLCs. They are cost-effective for low input/output (I/O), slower speed applications.
PLC Security

As security concerns remain in many professional spaces including the factory automation space, becoming up-to-speed with the different types of PLC Security is imperative. By creating and implementing an effective strategy to remain secure, you will likely avoid issues, downtime, and setbacks. Understanding the different types of PLCs will be very helpful when looking into PLC security.

PLC Cybersecurity: How the control network is linked to the internet, as well as other networks. A handful of PLC issues could likely involve the following:

  • Incident response planning and plans;
  • Issues drafting and reviewing policies
  • Issues drafting and reviewing procedures
  • Retention of cybersecurity experts and vendors;
  • A need for preparation of a breach:
    • exercises
    • training
    • breach simulations
  • A need for cybersecurity insurance review and counseling
  • A demand for record management and information infrastructure;
  • Privacy risk management
  • Assessment of cybersecurity risk in mergers and acquisitions;
  • Payment Credit Industry (PCI) Compliance protocols
  • Vendor contract management protocols
  • Supply chain risk management

 

PLC Physical Security: Although PLC physical security differs from PLC cybersecurity, it is still important and should be prioritized when an individual or a company is undergoing breach simulations, training, and exercises. PLC physical security deals with:

  • correcting default passwords
  • ensuring only certified individuals are in the control system’s environment
  • limiting access to thumb drives and securing access

MRO Electric and Supply maintains a comprehensive stock of Modicon PLC parts, including the Modicon Quantum series. Also, feel free to check out our repair and core exchange programs to learn how to save.

Understanding Issues with Security
In order to create and implement training and procedures for staff, you must understand how issues with security occur.  Not all cybersecurity attacks occur from external hackers or scammers. In fact, experts believe that only an estimated 20% of all cybersecurity attacks are intentional and intended to be malicious. Whether you think it’s possible or not, an offended employee could indeed be your hacker. Almost always caused by software issues, device issues, and malware infections, cybersecurity seems straight-forward initially, until you dig into those fine, often overlooked details.

As many in the automation space may know, PLC cybersecurity wasn’t a thing a decade ago. These days, PLCs are connected to business systems through any run-of-the-mill network and aren’t separated from other networks that other automation equipment may also be on.  As time goes on, it’s becoming more and more common to see TCP/IP networking from a business system standpoint. By connecting via TCP/IP, data exchange, as well as more rational and scalable business decisions, is enabled.

PLC Security Factors:
  • Although it may not actually connect to the internet, a control system is unsafe. Contrary to popular belief, a modem connection could also experience intrusion and a hack.
  • Wireless networks, laptop computers, and trusted vendor connections could be other sources of connections in which people may be likely to overlook.
  • Keep in mind that the majority of IT departments are unaware of factory automation equipment, including CNCs, CPUs, PCBs, robotics parts and, last but not least, PLCs.
  • Piggybacking off of the last point, IT departments’ lack of experience with the aforementioned equipment, along with their lack of experience with industrial standards and scalable processes indicate that they should not be in-charge and responsible for a company’s PLC security. Nobody wants an annoyed employee to make inappropriate changes to a PLC’s communication highway.
  • Hackers do not necessarily need to understand PLC or SCADA to block PC-to-PLC communication. They absolutely do not need to understand a PLC or SCADA system to cause operational or programming issues.
  •  Often times, control systems, including ones that many PLCs integrate with, use Microsoft Windows, which is very popular amongst hackers.
  • Some PLCs crash simply by pinging an IP address, like what happened at the Brown’s Ferry Nuclear Plant, which is located in upstate Alabama. Since the incident in 2006, the plant has undergone numerous security, operational, and management improvements.

 

In conclusion, when a security breach occurs, regardless of the specifics, understanding that time is of the essence will help smooth over most incidents. Trusting who has access to a control systems environment and thumb drive is crucial. If someone has access to the control system environment and thumb drive, ensure they’re well-qualified and up-to-speed with their team and/or company.

 

 

G Codes

G Codes

G Codes

As a generic name for a plain-text language in which CNC machine are able to understand, G-Codes are important to understand in the manufacturing, automation and engineering spaces. You can enter a G-Code manually if you wish, but you do not have to because of the CAD/CAM software’ abilities along with the machine controller.  G-Codes are not necessarily readable by humans, but it’s possible to look through the file and determine what is generally occurring.

In the factory automation space, nobody likes downtime and receiving error codes. While using CNCs (view FANUC CNC parts here), many professionals are faced with G Codes. By definition, a G Code is a computer code language that is used to guide CNC machine devices to perform specific motions. A few examples of specific motions would be:

  • canned cycles
  • work coordinates
  • several repetitive cycles.
G Codes: canned cycles-

Also referred to as a fixed cycle, canned cycles are ways to effectively and efficiently perform repetitive CNC machining operations. They automate specific machining functions. A few examples would be pocketing, threading, and drilling. A canned cycle is almost always stored as a pre-program in a machine’s controller. To learn more about canned cycles, check out this article courtesy of zero-divide.net.

G Codes: work coordinates-

The G Code coordinate pipeline goes something like this:

  • Unit conversion to metric
  • Convert from relative to absolute and polar to Cartesian: g90g91XYZ()
  • G52, G54, and G92 offsets
  • G51 scaling
  • G68 coordinate rotation

G-Code is the most popular programming language used for programming CNC machinery. Some G words alter the state of the machine so that it changes from cutting straight lines to cutting arcs. Other G words cause the interpretation of numbers as millimeters rather than inches. Some G words set or remove tool length or diameter offsets. Be sure to check out our article covering FANUC CNC Codes here.

MRO Electric and Supply has new and refurbished FANUC CNC parts available. We also offer repair pricing. For more information, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.

Tool Parameters, Feeds, and Speeds

Listed below are some easily-understood G-code commands in which are used for setting the speed, feed, and tool parameters.

F= Feed

The F command’s purpose is to set the feed rate. Keep in mind, the machine operates at the specified speed rate when G1 is used, G1 commands are set to operate at the set F value.

An error is likely to occur if the feed rate (F) isn’t set once before the first G1 call.  Here is an example:

  • G1 F1500 X100 Y100

S= Spindle Speed

The S command’s purpose is to set the spindle speed. The Spindle speed is almost always set in RPMs (revolutions per minute). Here is an example:

  • S10000

T= Tool

The T command’s purpose is paired with M6 in order to display the tool number to be used for cutting the current file. Here is an example:

  • M6 T1
Below is a complete listing of G Codes:
  • G00     Rapid traverse 
  • G01     Linear interpolation with feed rate
  • G02     Circular interpolation (clockwise)
  • G03     Circular interpolation (counterclockwise)
  • G2/G3   Helical interpolation
  • G04     Dwell time in milliseconds
  • G05     Spline definition
  • G06     Spline interpolation
  • G07     Tangential circular interpolation, Helix interpolation, Polygon interpolation, Feedrate interpolation
  • G08     Ramping function at block transition / Look ahead “off”
  • G09     No ramping function at block transition / Look ahead “on”
  • G10     Stop dynamic block preprocessing
  • G11     Stop interpolation during block preprocessing
  • G12     Circular interpolation (CW) with radius
  • G13     Circular interpolation (CCW) with radius
  • G14     Polar coordinate programming, absolute
  • G15     Polar coordinate programming, relative
  • G16     Definition of the pole point of the polar coordinate system
  • G17     Selection of the X, Y plane
  • G18     Selection of the Z, X plane
  • G19     Selection of the Y, Z plane
  • G20     Selection of a freely definable plane
  • G21     Parallel axes “on”
  • G22     Parallel axes “off”
  • G24     Safe zone programming; lower limit values
  • G25     Safe zone programming; upper limit values
  • G26     Safe zone programming “off”
  • G27     Safe zone programming “on”
  • G33     Thread cutting with constant pitch
  • G34     Thread cutting with dynamic pitch
  • G35     Oscillation configuration
  • G38     Mirror imaging “on”
  • G39     Mirror imaging “off”
  • G40     Path compensations “off”
  • G41     Path compensation left of the workpiece contour
  • G42     Path compensation right of the workpiece contour
  • G43     Path compensation left of the workpiece contour with altered approach
  • G44     Path compensation right of the workpiece contour with altered approach
  • G50     Scaling
  • G51     Part rotation; programming in degrees
  • G52     Part rotation; programming in radians
  • G53     Zero offset off
  • G54     Zero offset #1
  • G55     Zero offset #2
  • G56     Zero offset #3
  • G57     Zero offset #4
  • G58     Zero offset #5
  • G59     Zero offset #6
  • G63 Feed/spindle override not active
  • G66 Feed/spindle override active
  • G70     Inch format active
  • G71     Metric format active
  • G72     Interpolation with precision stop “off”
  • G73     Interpolation with precision stop “on”
  • G74     Move to home position
  • G75     Curvature function activation
  • G76     Curvature acceleration limit
  • G78     Normalcy function “on” (rotational axis orientation)
  • G79     Normalcy function “off”
G80 – G89 for milling applications:
  • G80     Canned cycle “off”
  • G81     Drilling to final depth canned cycle
  • G82     Spot facing with dwell time canned cycle
  • G83     Deep hole drilling canned cycle
  • G84     Tapping or Thread cutting with balanced chuck canned cycle
  • G85     Reaming canned cycle
  • G86     Boring canned cycle
  • G87     Reaming with measuring stop canned cycle
  • G88     Boring with spindle stop canned cycle
  • G89     Boring with intermediate stop canned cycle
G81 – G88 for cylindrical grinding applications:
  • G81     Reciprocation without plunge
  • G82     Incremental face grinding
  • G83     Incremental plunge grinding
  • G84     Multi-pass face grinding
  • G85     Multi-pass diameter grinding
  • G86     Shoulder grinding
  • G87     Shoulder grinding with face plunge
  • G88     Shoulder grinding with diameter plunge
  • G90     Absolute programming
  • G91     Incremental programming
  • G92     Position preset
  • G93     Constant tool circumference velocity “on” (grinding wheel)
  • G94     Feed in mm / min (or inch / min)
  • G95     Feed per revolution (mm / rev or inch / rev)
  • G96     Constant cutting speed “on”
  • G97     Constant cutting speed “off”
  • G98     Positioning axis signal to PLC
  • G99     Axis offset
  • G100   Polar transformation “off”
  • G101   Polar transformation “on”
  • G102   Cylinder barrel transformation “on”; cartesian coordinate system
  • G103   Cylinder barrel transformation “on,” with real-time-radius compensation (RRC)
  • G104   Cylinder barrel transformation with centerline migration (CLM) and RRC
  • G105   Polar transformation “on” with polar axis selections
  • G106   Cylinder barrel transformation “on” polar-/cylinder-coordinates
  • G107   Cylinder barrel transformation “on” polar-/cylinder-coordinates with RRC
  • G108   Cylinder barrel transformation polar-/cylinder-coordinates with CLM and RRC
  • G109   Axis transformation programming of the tool depth
  • G110   Power control axis selection/channel 1
  • G111   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 1 (Voltage, Frequency, Time)
  • G112   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 1
  • G113   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 1
  • G114   Power control pre-selection T4/channel 1
  • G115   Power control pre-selection T5/channel 1
  • G116   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output
  • G117   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output
  • G120   Axis transformation; orientation changing of the linear interpolation rotary axis
  • G121   Axis transformation; orientation change in a plane
  • G125   Electronic gearbox; plain teeth
  • G126   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, axial
  • G127   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, tangential
  • G128   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, diagonal
  • G130   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G131   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G132   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G133   Zero lag thread cutting “on”
  • G134   Zero lag thread cutting “off”
  • G140   Axis transformation; orientation designation workpiece fixed coordinates
  • G141   Axis transformation; orientation designation active coordinates
  • G160   ART activation
  • G161   ART learning function for velocity factors “on”
  • G162   ART learning function deactivation
  • G163   ART learning function for acceleration factors
  • G164   ART learning function for acceleration changing
  • G165   Command filter “on”
  • G166   Command filter “off”
  • G170   Digital measuring signals; block transfer with hard stop
  • G171   Digital measuring signals; block transfer without hard stop
  • G172   Digital measuring signals; block transfer with smooth stop
  • G175   SERCOS-identification number “write”
  • G176   SERCOS-identification number “read”
  • G180   Axis transformation “off”
  • G181   Axis transformation “on” with not rotated coordinate system
  • G182   Axis transformation “on” with rotated/displaced coordinate system
  • G183   Axis transformation; definition of the coordinate system
  • G184   Axis transformation; programming tool dimensions
  • G186   Look ahead; corner acceleration; circle tolerance
  • G188   Activation of the positioning axes
  • G190   Diameter programming deactivation
  • G191   Diameter programming “on” and display of the contact point
  • G192   Diameter programming; only display contact point diameter
  • G193   Diameter programming; only display contact point actual axes center point
  • G200   Corner smoothing “off”
  • G201   Corner smoothing “on” with defined radius
  • G202   Corner smoothing “on” with defined corner tolerance
  • G203   Corner smoothing with defined radius up to maximum tolerance
  • G210   Power control axis selection/Channel 2
  • G211   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/Channel 2
  • G212   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/Channel 2
  • G213   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/Channel 2
  • G214   Power control pre-selection T4/Channel 2
  • G215   Power control pre-selection T5/Channel 2
  • G216   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 2
  • G217   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 2
  • G220   Angled wheel transformation “off”
  • G221   Angled wheel transformation “on”
  • G222   Angled wheel transformation “on” but angled wheel moves before others
  • G223   Angled wheel transformation “on” but angled wheel moves after others
  • G265   Distance regulation – axis selection
  • G270   Turning finishing cycle
  • G271   Stock removal in turning
  • G272   Stock removal in facing
  • G274   Peck finishing cycle
  • G275   Outer diameter / internal diameter turning cycle
  • G276   Multiple pass threading cycle
  • G310   Power control axes selection /channel 3
  • G311   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 3
  • G312   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 3
  • G313   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 3
  • G314   Power control pre-selection T4/channel 3
  • G315   Power control pre-selection T5/channel 3
  • G316   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 3
  • G317   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 3

 

In conclusion, becoming well-versed on CNC G-Codes, along with other codes associated with CNCs is imperative in this day and age. By having up-to-speed knowledge of CNC codes, you could most definitely set yourself apart from the average Joe.

 

Modicon PLC History

Modicon PLC History

Modicon PLC History

 

Richard E. Morley, also known as Dick, was an American electrical engineer. He was an employee at Bedford and Associates, located in Massachusetts. He is most commonly known for his involvement with the production of the first Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for General Motors and the Modicon in 1968. General Motors Company, often referred to as GM, is an American multinational corporation that is headquartered in Detroit, Michigan that engineers, manufactures, markets and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts and sells financial services.

Known as an author, educator, influencer and specialized engineer, Morleys’ accomplishments and contributions have earned him numerous awards from families such as ISA (the instrumentation systems and automation society), Inc. Magazine, Franklin Institute, SME (the Society of Manufacturing Engineers), and the Engineering Society of Detroit. SME offers the Richard E. Morley Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award for outstanding technical accomplishments in the manufacturing space by engineers age 35 and younger.

Schneider Electric currently owns the Modicon brand of PLCs. The PLC has been recognized as a major advancement in the automation space and has had an unprecedented impact on the manufacturing community as a whole. PLCs were designed to replace re-wiring and hard-wired control panels with software program changes when production updates were necessary. Before PLCs came about, several relays, drum sequencers, cam timers and closed-loop controllers were used to manufacture vehicles and vehicle parts. Re-wiring the relays and other necessary components was a very in-depth and costly process, but clearly worth the effort. The Modicon 084 PLC was modeled to be programmed in ‘ladder logic’ which had the look of the schematic diagrams of relay logic it was replacing.  This made the transition to PLCs easier for engineers and other professionals in the manufacturing space.  The automotive industry is still one of, if not the largest users of PLCs today. MRO Electric and Supply has new and refurbished Modicon parts available including the Modicon Quantum series. We also offer repair pricing. For more information, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.

The Modicon PLC Timeline

A few years later, in the 1970’s, dialogue between PLCs came about. Introduced as the first industrial communications network, Modbus was based on a Slave/Master architecture that used messaging to communicate between Modbus nodes. All and all, a lacking standardization made PLC communications a nightmare.

In the  1980’s, General Electric made an effort to regiment the interconnection of devices from several manufacturers with MAP (manufacturing automation protocol). PLC programming software was also created to operate on personal as well as professional computers in order to remove the need for dedicated programming terminals or handheld programmers.

As years have gone on, PLCs have evolved as technology evolves. Nowadays, they include process, motion, and distributed control systems, as well as complex networking. Equivalent to an average, run-of-the-mill desktop computer, PLCs have capacities for data handling storage and impressive processing power.