Being a leader of the robotics industry for over 50 years, Kawasaki has developed one of the most complete lines of e-controllers on the market. All of these controllers are suited with a wide array of features including:
High powered CPU performence
Large, easy to use LCD Display
Optimized key layout
Easily accessible safety switches
The E76/77 family of controllers are very compact and used for smaller robot arms. One of these arms are the RS003N Robot, which has a maximum payload of 3kg and has horizontal and vertical reaches of 620mm and 967mm, respectively. The controllers with these robots specialize in assembly and material handling applications.
The E9 family of robotic teach pedants are also built very compact, however these devices are typically used in medium-duty applications. Unlike the other two families of controllers, the E9 family features an open structure system with a direct cooling system. However, like the E7 and E3 families, the enclosed structure with indirect cooling is an available option. The E9 family takes full advantage of the digital servo drive powering it to have a maximum payload capacity of 40kg.
E30/32/33/34 controllers at their base are very alike the E76/77 controllers but with more power. These devices are not as compact as the previous devices we have discussed, however the reason being they are highly expandable and are easier to maintain. Features such as Kawasaki’s K-Logic sequencer software allow the addition of up to 16 total controllable axes. The E3 family of Kawasaki e-controllers are able to handle the following maximum payloads:
E30 – 145 kg
E32 – 180 kg
E33 – 195 kg
E34 – 180 kg
If you are interested in learning how to purchase the robot arm, the controller, or any other part/device that goes into an industrial robotic set-up, please call MRO Electric and Supply at (800)691-8511 or email us at email@example.com and we will help you get what you need.
The 3HAC028357-001 is a modern ABB Robotics Teach Pendant designed to be used with the IRC5 Industrial Robot Control, one of the most popular robotics controls on the market. Also known as the “FlexPendant”, the 3HAC028357-001 is characterized by its clean, color touch screen-based design and 3D joystick for intuitive interaction.
The 3HAC028357-001 TPU (or teach pendant unit) is a hand held operator unit used to perform many of the tasks involved when operating a robot system: running programs, jogging the manipulator, modifying robot programs and so on.
The FlexPendant is designed for continuous operation in harsh industrial environment. Its touch screen is easy to clean and resistant to water, oil and accidental welding splashes.
The 3HAC028357-001 replaces the legacy 3HAC023195-001 teach pendant.
The standard cost for a new ABB 3HAC028357-001 direct from the manufacturer or authorized distributor is typically in the $6000-7,000 range. MRO Electric is able to supply these pendants at a much lower price point, and we warranty all of our robotics parts for 12 months.
MRO Electric and Supply distributes a variety of KUKA Teach Pendants for KRC1, KRC2, and KRC3 controls. We also can supply the new KRC4 smartPAD. The smartPAD pendant is the latest type of KUKA teach pendant, designed to allow users to perform even the most complex operating tasks with ease – even those with little experience. It features an 8.4″ display size with a industrial touch screen.
KUKA smartPAD Teach Pendant
The ergonomic design of the KUKA smartPAD creates a pendant with reduced weight and an anatomically comfortable operation. It can be used to operate all KUKA robots that have a KR C4 controller. Its 6D mouse allows for movement and reorientation of the robot on all axes.
All smartPADs are programmed using the KRL – KUKA programming language. This easy to learn robotics language is very intuitive, and can be used to create customized robotic motions with ease. You can also synchronize your programming with up to 6 KUKA robots. The other major benefit of the smartPAD teach pendant is that it can be hot swapped at any time from a KR C4 controller – just simply plug it in and use.
Legacy KUKA Teach Pendants
MRO Electric also distributes a number of legacy KUKA teach pendants. We recognize that there are still a variety of older KUKA controllers still in use today. Rather than having to upgrade your control system when one of your pendants fail, we can ship you a replacement pendant to minimize any downtime.
If for some reason our stock is depleted, we can usually repair your KUKA pendant in as little as 3-5 days. Visit our main KUKA product page to see all the KUKA teach pendants that we can supply or repair.
Updated August 2019: You can purchase KUKA products directly from our website.
MRO Electric and Supply distributes a variety of new and refurbished KUKA Robot arms.
We repaint and rebuild all of our refurbished robotics arms, as well as purge and replace the grease according to the manufacturer’s specifications.
We supply KUKA arms and wrists from a number of robots, including the following:
Any Many More!
Most KUKA robotic arms are made up of 4-6 joints, and can be used for many different applications such as welding, material handling, material removal, and more. Most KUKA robot arms are made from aluminum is built from the base up, ending with the wrist and whichever end effect is needed to help the arm perform its given application. KUKA was one of the first companies to use aluminum in robot arm design, which makes KUKA manipulators one of the fastest and lightest on the market.They also introduced a horizontal balancing spring on axis 2 before the other robot manufacturers, a design that has now been widely adopted.
Their large arms are typically used to lift heavy payloads are sometimes ran by hydraulic and pneumatic methods.
KUKA is known for their orange arms that have been used to build cars for Tesla and Porsche. They were also seen in the 2002 James Bond film Die Another Day.
MRO Electric and Supply has a warehouse full of many types of KUKA arms and wrists. Give us a call today if you need a replacement and we can usually ship you one same-day! You can also email firstname.lastname@example.org for a quote.
Programmable logic controllers, also known as PLCs, initially came about in the late 1960s. PLCs were designed to replace relay-based machine control systems in the major U.S. vehicle manufacturing space. The relay-based control systems were considered hard to use and were disliked amongst those in the automation and manufacturing in.
In 1968, Dick Morley of Bedford Associates in Massachusetts designed the Modular Digital Controller, later dubbed the Modicon. After the Modicon 084’s initiation into the world, there was no looking back to those relay-based control systems. Be sure to check out our article covering Modicon PLC history to learn more.
PLCs are user-friendly microprocessor-based specialty computers that carry out control functions, many of which are of high levels of complexity. They are engineered to endure harsh and strenuous situations such as in heated, cooled and even moist environments. Used for automation usually in the industrial electromechanical space, PLCs are computers that deal with the controlling of machinery, often on the following:
factory assembly lines
power generation systems
PLCs are programmed using a computer language. Written on a computer, the program is then downloaded to the PLC via a cable. These programs are stored in the PLCs memory. The hard-wired logic is exchanged for the program fed by its user during the transition between relay controls to PLC. The manufacturing and process control industries have gotten to take advantage of PLC applications-oriented software since Modicon PLCs inception.
PLC Functions and Directions
PLCs use programmable memory in order to store particular functions and directions. Some functions and directions would include:
Understanding the different types of PLCs will be very helpful when looking into PLC security.
The numerous types of PLCs can be organized into three principal categories:
Advanced PLC: Advanced PLCs offer the greatest processing power out of all of the PLC types. They feature a larger memory capacity, higher input/output (I/O) expandability, and greater networking options.
Compact Controller: Logic Controllers are increased intermediate level offerings with an increased set of instructions and a greater input/output (I/O) than a run-of-the-mill logic controller
Logic Controler: A logic controller is often referred to as a ‘smart relay’. They are generally straightforward to use and considered a good place to begin when becoming acquainted with PLCs. They are cost-effective for low input/output (I/O), slower speed applications.
As security concerns remain in many professional spaces including the factory automation space, becoming up-to-speed with the different types of PLC Security is imperative. By creating and implementing an effective strategy to remain secure, you will likely avoid issues, downtime, and setbacks. Understanding the different types of PLCs will be very helpful when looking into PLC security.
PLC Cybersecurity: How the control network is linked to the internet, as well as other networks. A handful of PLC issues could likely involve the following:
Incident response planning and plans;
Issues drafting and reviewing policies
Issues drafting and reviewing procedures
Retention of cybersecurity experts and vendors;
A need for preparation of a breach:
A need for cybersecurity insurance review and counseling
A demand for record management and information infrastructure;
Privacy risk management
Assessment of cybersecurity risk in mergers and acquisitions;
Payment Credit Industry (PCI) Compliance protocols
Vendor contract management protocols
Supply chain risk management
PLC Physical Security: Although PLC physical security differs from PLC cybersecurity, it is still important and should be prioritized when an individual or a company is undergoing breach simulations, training, and exercises. PLC physical security deals with:
correcting default passwords
ensuring only certified individuals are in the control system’s environment
limiting access to thumb drives and securing access
MRO Electric and Supply maintains a comprehensive stock of Modicon PLC parts, including the Modicon Quantum series. Also, feel free to check out our repair and core exchange programs to learn how to save.
Understanding Issues with Security
In order to create and implement training and procedures for staff, you must understand how issues with security occur. Not all cybersecurity attacks occur from external hackers or scammers. In fact, experts believe that only an estimated 20% of all cybersecurity attacks are intentional and intended to be malicious. Whether you think it’s possible or not, an offended employee could indeed be your hacker. Almost always caused by software issues, device issues, and malware infections, cybersecurity seems straight-forward initially, until you dig into those fine, often overlooked details.
As many in the automation space may know, PLC cybersecurity wasn’t a thing a decade ago. These days, PLCs are connected to business systems through any run-of-the-mill network and aren’t separated from other networks that other automation equipment may also be on. As time goes on, it’s becoming more and more common to see TCP/IP networking from a business system standpoint. By connecting via TCP/IP, data exchange, as well as more rational and scalable business decisions, is enabled.
PLC Security Factors:
Although it may not actually connect to the internet, a control system is unsafe. Contrary to popular belief, a modem connection could also experience intrusion and a hack.
Wireless networks, laptop computers, and trusted vendor connections could be other sources of connections in which people may be likely to overlook.
Keep in mind that the majority of IT departments are unaware of factory automation equipment, including CNCs, CPUs, PCBs, robotics parts and, last but not least, PLCs.
Piggybacking off of the last point, IT departments’ lack of experience with the aforementioned equipment, along with their lack of experience with industrial standards and scalable processes indicate that they should not be in-charge and responsible for a company’s PLC security. Nobody wants an annoyed employee to make inappropriate changes to a PLC’s communication highway.
Hackers do not necessarily need to understand PLC or SCADA to block PC-to-PLC communication. They absolutely do not need to understand a PLC or SCADA system to cause operational or programming issues.
Often times, control systems, including ones that many PLCs integrate with, use Microsoft Windows, which is very popular amongst hackers.
Some PLCs crash simply by pinging an IP address, like what happened at the Brown’s Ferry Nuclear Plant, which is located in upstate Alabama. Since the incident in 2006, the plant has undergone numerous security, operational, and management improvements.
In conclusion, when a security breach occurs, regardless of the specifics, understanding that time is of the essence will help smooth over most incidents. Trusting who has access to a control systems environment and thumb drive is crucial. If someone has access to the control system environment and thumb drive, ensure they’re well-qualified and up-to-speed with their team and/or company.
As a generic name for a plain-text language in which CNC machine are able to understand, G-Codes are important to understand in the manufacturing, automation and engineering spaces. You can enter a G-Code manually if you wish, but you do not have to because of the CAD/CAM software’ abilities along with the machine controller. G-Codes are not necessarily readable by humans, but it’s possible to look through the file and determine what is generally occurring.
In the factory automation space, nobody likes downtime and receiving error codes. While using CNCs (view FANUC CNC parts here), many professionals are faced with G Codes. By definition, a G Code is a computer code language that is used to guide CNC machine devices to perform specific motions. A few examples of specific motions would be:
several repetitive cycles.
G Codes: canned cycles-
Also referred to as a fixed cycle, canned cycles are ways to effectively and efficiently perform repetitive CNC machining operations. They automate specific machining functions. A few examples would be pocketing, threading, and drilling. A canned cycle is almost always stored as a pre-program in a machine’s controller. To learn more about canned cycles, check out this article courtesy of zero-divide.net.
G Codes: work coordinates-
The G Code coordinate pipeline goes something like this:
Unit conversion to metric
Convert from relative to absolute and polar to Cartesian: g90g91XYZ()
G52, G54, and G92 offsets
G68 coordinate rotation
G-Code is the most popular programming language used for programming CNC machinery. Some G words alter the state of the machine so that it changes from cutting straight lines to cutting arcs. Other G words cause the interpretation of numbers as millimeters rather than inches. Some G words set or remove tool length or diameter offsets. Be sure to check out our article covering FANUC CNC Codes here.
G311 Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 3
G312 Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 3
G313 Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 3
G314 Power control pre-selection T4/channel 3
G315 Power control pre-selection T5/channel 3
G316 Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 3
G317 Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 3
In conclusion, becoming well-versed on CNC G-Codes, along with other codes associated with CNCs is imperative in this day and age. By having up-to-speed knowledge of CNC codes, you could most definitely set yourself apart from the average Joe.
Richard E. Morley, also known as Dick, was an American electrical engineer. He was an employee at Bedford and Associates, located in Massachusetts. He is most commonly known for his involvement with the production of the first Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for General Motors and the Modicon in 1968. General Motors Company, often referred to as GM, is an American multinational corporation that is headquartered in Detroit, Michigan that engineers, manufactures, markets and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts and sells financial services.
Known as an author, educator, influencer and specialized engineer, Morleys’ accomplishments and contributions have earned him numerous awards from families such as ISA (the instrumentation systems and automation society), Inc. Magazine, Franklin Institute, SME (the Society of Manufacturing Engineers), and the Engineering Society of Detroit. SME offers the Richard E. Morley Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award for outstanding technical accomplishments in the manufacturing space by engineers age 35 and younger.
Schneider Electric currently owns the Modicon brand of PLCs. The PLC has been recognized as a major advancement in the automation space and has had an unprecedented impact on the manufacturing community as a whole. PLCs were designed to replace re-wiring and hard-wired control panels with software program changes when production updates were necessary. Before PLCs came about, several relays, drum sequencers, cam timers and closed-loop controllers were used to manufacture vehicles and vehicle parts. Re-wiring the relays and other necessary components was a very in-depth and costly process, but clearly worth the effort. The Modicon 084 PLC was modeled to be programmed in ‘ladder logic’ which had the look of the schematic diagrams of relay logic it was replacing. This made the transition to PLCs easier for engineers and other professionals in the manufacturing space. The automotive industry is still one of, if not the largest users of PLCs today.MRO Electric and Supply has new and refurbished Modicon parts available including the Modicon Quantum series. We also offer repair pricing. For more information, please call 800-691-8511 or email email@example.com.
The Modicon PLC Timeline
A few years later, in the 1970’s, dialogue between PLCs came about. Introduced as the first industrial communications network, Modbus was based on a Slave/Master architecture that used messaging to communicate between Modbus nodes. All and all, a lacking standardization made PLC communications a nightmare.
In the 1980’s, General Electric made an effort to regiment the interconnection of devices from several manufacturers with MAP (manufacturing automation protocol). PLC programming software was also created to operate on personal as well as professional computers in order to remove the need for dedicated programming terminals or handheld programmers.
As years have gone on, PLCs have evolved as technology evolves. Nowadays, they include process, motion, and distributed control systems, as well as complex networking. Equivalent to an average, run-of-the-mill desktop computer, PLCs have capacities for data handling storage and impressive processing power.
In the world of automation, whether we’re talking about factory or shop automation, understanding how to operate and maintain FANUC CNC parts is imperative. Several businesses and companies suffer from dreaded downtime because a team isn’t well-rounded; many team members may know how to manage machine operators, etc., but are unaware of how to operate a CNC themselves. For a manager, knowing and understanding exactly what to look for to avoid an operating issue starts with understanding the basics of CNC machining and programming.
CNCs originally started coming about in the late 1940s, not long after World War II as NCs (Numerical Controls). They were engineered to be a reliable, cost-effective way to manufacture and design an increased amount of parts for the aircraft industry. Based on already-existing modified tools equipped with motors that manipulated the controls, CNCs were quickly and abruptly built up with computers, both digital and analog. As time has gone on, CNCs have continued to evolve as technology evolves.
Early Numerical Controls initially lacked computers. They also lacked calculating ability, which is absolutely unheard of in today’s world. After the 1960s, numerical controls eventually gained calculating and computer functions. Onboard processing became feasible and, as a result, CNC machines came about. Via the initiation of CNCs, a handful of features were then attainable, fortunately, including canned cycles, tool length compensation, sub programming, radial compensation and tool diameter.
NC and CNC G Codes are referred to as preparatory codes. By preparing the machine to perform a specific function like, for example, rapid travel G0 / G00, the preparatory process is important to understand, as all of the stages of production are.
NC / CNC M codes are known as miscellaneous codes. CNC M codes basically perform on and off functions such as:
The ANSI standard for G code and M code programming is ANSI/EIA 274D-1988. The ISO standard for G code and M code programming is ISO 6983. There is a new and different standard ISO 14649 also known as the STEP-NC standard that addresses NC and CNC programming using the enhanced features of CAD and/or CAM software.
Machine tool builders are not required to adhere to standards and every so often create variations to standard G codes and M codes. Occasionally design different, unique alternatives to orthodox G codes and M codes. Typically, the majority of CNC G codes are considered modal, which means they stay active until they’re changed. Along with understanding CNC codes, feel free to view another one of our articles focused on choosing a CNC to become as well-versed with CNCs as possible.
Auxiliary Function (M Function)
When a numeral is specified following address M, code signal and a strobe signal are sent to the machine. The machine uses these signals to turn on or off its functions. Usually, only one M code can be specified in one block.
In some cases, however, up to three M codes can be specified for some types of machine tools. Which M code corresponds to which machine function is determined by the machine tool builder.
The machine processes all operations specified by M codes except those specified by M98, M99,M198 or called subprogram(Parameter No.6071 to 6079), or called custom macro (Parameter No.6080 to 6089). Refer to the machine tool builder’s instruction manual for details.
The following M codes have special meanings:
M02, M03 (End of Program)
This indicates the end of the main program Automatic operation is stopped and the CNC unit is reset.
This differs with the machine tool builder. After a block specifying the end of the program is executed, control returns to the start of the program. Bit 5 of parameter 3404 (M02) or bit 4 of parameter 3404 (M30) can be used to disable M02, M30 from returning control to the start of the program.
M00 (Program Stop)
Automatic operation is stopped after a block containing M00 is executed. When the program is stopped, all existing modal information remains unchanged. The automatic operation can be restarted by actuating the cycle operation. This differs with the machine tool builder.
M01 (Optional Stop)
Similarly to M00, automatic operation is stopped after a block containing M01 is executed. This code is only effective when the Optional Stop switch on the machine operator’s panel has been pressed.
M98 (Calling of Sub-Program)
This code is used to call a subprogram. The code and strobe signals are not sent.
M99 (End of Subprogram)
This code indicates the end of a subprogram. M99 execution returns control to the main program. The code and strobe signals are not sent.
M198 (Calling a Subprogram)
This code is used to call a subprogram of a file in the external input/output function. See the description of the subprogram call function (III–4.7) for details.
Multiple M Commands in a Single Block
In general, only one M code can be specified in a block. However, up to three M codes can be specified at once in a block by setting bit 7 (M3B) of parameter No. 3404 to 1. Up to three M codes specified in a block are simultaneously output to the machine. This means that compared with the conventional method of a single M command in a single block, a shorter cycle time can be realized in machining.
CNC allows up to three M codes to be specified in one block. However, some M codes cannot be specified at the same time due to mechanical operation restrictions. For detailed information about the mechanical operation restrictions on simultaneous specification of multiple M codes in one block, refer to the manual of each machine tool builder. M00, M01, M02, M30, M98, M99, or M198 must not be specified together with another M code. Some M codes other than M00, M01, M02, M30, M98, M99, and M198 cannot be specified together with other M codes; each of those M codes must be specified in a single block.
Such M codes include these which direct the CNC to perform internal operations in addition to sending the M codes themselves to the machine. To be specified, such M codes are M codes for calling program numbers 9001 to 9009 and M codes for disabling advance reading (buffering) of subsequent blocks. Meanwhile, multiple of M codes that direct the CNC only to send the M codes themselves (without performing internal operations ) can be specified in a single block.
M Code Group Check Function
The M code group check function checks if a combination of multiple M codes (up to three M codes) contained in a block is correct.
This function has two purposes. One is to detect if any of the multiple M codes specified in a block include an M code that must be specified alone. The other purpose is to detect if any of the multiple M codes specified in a block include M codes that belong to the same group. In either of these cases, P/S alarm No. 5016 is issued. For details on group data setting, refer to the manual available from the machine tool builder.
M Code Setting
Up to 500 M codes can be specified. In general, M0 to M99 are always specified. M codes from M100 and up are optional.
Group numbers can be set from 0 to 127. Note, however, that 0 and 1 have special meanings. Group number 0 represents M codes that need not be checked. Group number 1 represents M codes that must be specified alone.