How to Extend the Life of a Servo Motor

Servo motors exist as a crucial component in industrial automation.  Without them the entire industry sits at a literal standstill. For this reason engineers design modern servo motors with durability and longevity in mind.  That being said, the demands of the industry vary and longevity as a concept is only relative to what is being demanded.  Maintenance and environmental factors also play a role in the life span of a servo motor.

Read more: How to Extend the Life of a Servo Motor

Here are some common faults with server motors as well as a few suggestions on maintaining and extending the life of your servo motor.

Common Faults

  • Contamination: Dust, dirt, or moisture getting inside the motor can damage components and hinder performance.1
  • Overheating: This is a major concern and can be caused by mechanical issues (binding, overloading) or electrical problems (excessive current, failing components).
  • Bearing Failure: Worn bearings due to age, lack of lubrication, or contamination can lead to noisy operation and eventually complete motor failure.
  • Winding and Cable Faults: Internal shorts or damage to the windings or control cables can disrupt motor function.

Ways to Extend the Life of Your Servo Motor

  • Preventative Maintenance: Regular cleaning, inspection, and lubrication (if applicable) can catch problems early and keep your servo motor running smoothly.
  • Reduce Load and Strain: Don’t overload the servo motor beyond its capacity. If possible, use a servo motor with a higher torque rating than the minimum required for your application.
  • Manage Temperature: Ensure proper ventilation around the servo motor to prevent overheating. You might need to adjust operation cycles or add cooling fans in high-stress environments.
  • Limit Travel Extremes: Avoid constantly running the servo motor to its full range of motion. This can put extra stress on the gears and motor windings.
  • Use Shock Absorbers: If the servo motor deals with impacts at the end of its travel, consider adding shock absorbers to absorb impact and reduce stress.
  • Choose the Right Servo: Select a servo motor with specifications that match your project’s needs. Consider factors like torque, speed, and operating voltage.
  • Proper Power Supply: Ensure a steady and appropriate voltage supply to the servo motor. Fluctuations can damage internal components.

While the majority of servo motors are designed to withstand a lot of punishment put out by the demands of production they still retain a lifespan. This lifespan varies based on a myriad of factors from environmental to basic maintenance. The importance of regular maintenance and preventative care to servo motors will not only extend the lifespan of their service, but also save a company a lot of money in the long run.

Have a Broken Server Motor?

MRO Electric offers services for repairs and part replacement. A customer representative can be reached by phone: (800) 691-8511.

A Guide to FANUC Servo Amplifier Alarm Codes


FANUC Servo Amplifier

Understanding FANUC servo amplifier alarm codes is crucial for maintaining peak performance in CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines. These alarm codes serve as warning signals, indicating potential issues within the servo amplifier system. Ignoring or misinterpreting these alarms can lead to costly downtime, decreased productivity, and even damage to the machinery.

By comprehensively understanding these alarm codes and their associated troubleshooting measures, machine operators and maintenance personnel can swiftly address issues. This minimizes disruptions to production schedules and ensuring the longevity of the equipment.

Read more: A Guide to FANUC Servo Amplifier Alarm Codes

Understanding FANUC Servo Amplifiers

FANUC servo amplifiers are integral components of CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines. These amplifiers are responsible for controlling the movement of servo motors, which are pivotal in driving the various axes of motion within the CNC system.

Servo amplifiers receive signals from the CNC controller and translate them into precise voltage and current outputs to drive the servo motors accurately. This precise control is essential for achieving the exact positioning, speed, and torque required for machining operations.

The significance of FANUC servo amplifiers lies in their ability to translate digital commands into precise mechanical motion, ensuring the repeatability and accuracy demanded by modern manufacturing processes. Servo amplifiers play a critical role in achieving optimal performance in CNC operations. That includes producing complex parts with tight tolerances or executing high-speed machining tasks.

Understanding the function and operation of FANUC servo amplifiers is fundamental for CNC machine operators and maintenance personnel. It allows them to troubleshoot issues effectively, optimize performance, and maintain the reliability and precision of the machinery throughout its operational life.

Troubleshooting FANUC Servo Amplifier Alarms

When troubleshooting FANUC servo amplifier alarms, it’s essential to follow a systematic safety procedures to identify and resolve issues effectively. Here are some basic tips to consider:

Prepping to Troubleshoot

  1. Safety First: Before starting any troubleshooting procedures, ensure the CNC machine remains powered off and safely isolated from the power source. Furthermore, follow all recommended safety procedures. This includes using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when working with electrical components.
  2. Refer to Documentation: Consult the FANUC servo amplifier manual or documentation provided by the manufacturer for specific alarm code definitions, troubleshooting steps, and safety precautions. Familiarize yourself with the layout and components of the servo amplifier system.

Checking Equipment

  1. Check Connections: Inspect all electrical connections, including power cables, signal cables, and feedback cables, for any signs of damage, looseness, or corrosion. Ensure that connections are secure and properly seated.
  2. Review Alarm Codes: Take note of the specific alarm code displayed on the CNC machine’s control panel or diagnostic interface. Cross-reference the code with the manufacturer’s documentation to determine the potential cause of the alarm.
  3. Inspect Servo Motors: Check the servo motors for any mechanical issues such as binding, excessive wear, or damage to the shafts, couplings, or encoders. Next, check the motors for proper lubrication and potential debris.
  4. Test Power Supply: Verify that the power supply to the servo amplifier remains stable and within the specified voltage range. Use a multimeter or other appropriate testing equipment to measure voltage levels and identify any fluctuations or abnormalities.
  5. Reset Alarms: In some cases, resetting the alarm may temporarily clear the fault condition and allow the machine to resume normal operation. Make sure to do this after identifying and addressing the underlying cause of the alarm.


  1. Document Findings: Keep detailed records of the troubleshooting process, including observations, measurements, and actions taken. This information may prove valuable for future reference and for communicating with professional technicians if needed.
  2. Know When to Seek Help: If you encounter alarm codes or issues that you are unable to resolve , it’s important to seek assistance from qualified professionals or FANUC-certified technicians. Moreover, attempting complex repairs without the necessary expertise can lead to further damage or safety hazards.

Encountering an Issue with Your FANUC Servo Amplifier?

Get expert assistance now, to minimize downtime and keep your operations running smoothly. MRO offers a wide range of repair services and replacement parts.

Common FANUC Servo Amplifier Alarm Codes

0 PLEASE TURN OFF POWERA parameter which requires the power off was input, turn off power.
1 TH PARITY ALARMH alarm (A character with incorrect parity was input). Correct the tape.
2 TV PARITY ALARMTV alarm (The number of characters in a block is odd). This alarm will be generated only when the TV check is effective.
3 TOO MANY DIGITSData exceeding the maximum allowable number of digits was input. (Refer to the item of max. programmable dimensions.)
A numeral or the sign “ – ” was input without an address at the beginning of a block. Modify the program.
5 NO DATA AFTER ADDRESSThe address was not followed by the appropriate data but was followed by another address or EOB code. Modify the program.
6 ILLEGAL USE OF NEGATIVE SIGNSign “ – ” input error (Sign “ – ” was input after an address with which it cannot be used. Or two or more “ – ” signs were input.) Modify the program.
7 ILLEGAL USE OF DECIMAL POINTDecimal point “.” input error (A decimal point was input after an address with which it can not be used. Or two decimal points were input.) Modify the program.
Unusable character was input in significant area. Modify the program.

Raspberry Pi in Industrial Automation

For quite a while now, the tech world has been smitten with the Raspberry Pi.  Since it came on the scene in 2012, it’s evolution and innovation has remained widely successful when it comes to the automation of tasks.  From emulating video games, to automating private homes, to even hacking various electronics, the Raspberry Pi proves itself a dominating force in automation.  So of course the next natural step is integrating it in the industrial automation sector.

Of course there exists questions regarding implementing Raspberry Pi into automation.  “How would it be used?” “Why would anyone use it?” “What advantages does it have?” In this article we  will explore the capabilities of the tiny but mighty process board and what about it and its potential in the industrial sector.

Read more: Raspberry Pi in Industrial Automation

Raspberry Pi: A Brief Introduction

If you’re in the tech sector for whatever reason, be it profession or hobby, chances are you have encountered the Raspberry Pi at some point.  At the very least you may have heard of it.  For those who don’t know, the Raspberry Pi is commonly designated as a SBC or Single-Board Computer.  Honestly, this characterization is pretty accurate.  The main computer component of the Pi is the size of a credit card, with the enclosure, you’re looking at a device that is about the size of a pack of cigarettes.

So a small pocket-sized  computer is cool, but what does it do?  Well, surprisingly a lot of things!  Hobbyists use the Pi when working with things such as robotics. Instructors find Pi as an easy way to teach programming languages to students. For the longest time Pi has gained prominence amongst private consumers and institutions. 

However, most recently, Pi has proven itself very useful in the industrial sector as well.

The Beginning of Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi’s origins traces back to Cambridge University during the early 2000’s.  A group of engineers headed by Eben Upton sought ways to rekindle interests in programming among a younger generation.  Today, sites like CodeMonkey, have enough demand from children as young as five years old wanting to get into programming.  However, in the early 2000’s programming remained a niche interest that required sophisticated knowledge of computational language to do.   It existed as a far cry from the more streamlined process that we see today.

In 2006 Upton and his team set out to design a small computer no bigger than a credit card, that was widely programmable, affordable, and adaptable in running various programs. Their work finally came to fruition in 2012 with the release of the Raspberry Pi Model B.  Features on this tiny triumph included both USB and HDMI ports.  It also sported a SD card slot for storage capabilities.  Best of all it was all packaged at a price point of $35.  This made it an overnight hit with professionals, educators, and hobbyists alike. 

Integrating Raspberry Pi Into Industrial Automation

So how did this unassuming little single-board computer get the attention of the automation industry?  For starters, it’s a very affordable platform that can complete a multitude of tasks. Additionally the small size of Pi also lends to them being energy efficient.  In the industrial sector, Pi boards can be integrated into sensors and used in server units.  They can be used to help manage and control PLCs. Some independent developers have coded apps that allow a Pi board to be used as a PLC.

Arguably, the largest advantage Pi has in the industry is that it exists as a platform that is not tied to any one manufacturer and can be integrated with a wide variety of equipment. You don’t have to worry about whether it’s compatible with Schneider or Yaskawa.

A Raspberry Pi SCB sits on top of a PLC.

Interested in PLCs

MRO Electric has a number of PLCs in stock available. Access the catalog here. For more information a sales representative can be reached through email: or by phone: (800) 691-8511. We also offer repair services.

The Role of Contactors

In industrial automation, the significance role contactors play gets overlooked. These unassuming yet pivotal components orchestrate the machinery and processes within manufacturing worldwide. From controlling motors to managing power distribution, contactors play a fundamental role in ensuring seamless operations across various industrial sectors.

Read more: The Role of Contactors

What is a Contactor?

At its core, a contactor exists as an electromechanical switch designed to control an electrical circuit. Unlike conventional switches, which operate manually, contactors primarily become utilized in scenarios where automated control is essential. They consist of a coil, which when energized, generates a magnetic field. This field attracts a movable armature, causing electrical contacts to close or open.

Contactor Applications in Industrial Automation

  1.  Motor Control: Contactors find extensive use in motor control applications. In industrial settings, contactors serve as the gateway for starting, stopping, and reversing motor operations. By effectively managing the flow of electrical power, contactors ensure smooth and precise control over motor functions. This contributes to enhanced productivity and safety.
  2. Power Distribution: Efficient power distribution is critical for maintaining operational integrity within industrial facilities. Contactors facilitate this by enabling the selective routing of electrical power to different equipment and processes. Acting as switches for high-power circuits, contactors ensure power being directed only where and when needed. This optimizes energy utilization and minimizing wastage.
  3. Heating and Lighting Control: Contactors also play a vital role in managing heating and lighting systems within industrial environments. They regulate the supply of electricity to heaters, lighting fixtures, and other auxiliary devices. Ultimately, contactors contribute to creating optimal working conditions while simultaneously conserving energy and reducing operational costs.

Advantages of Contactors in Automation

  1. Reliability: Companies build contactors to withstand the rigors of industrial environments, ensuring dependable performance even under challenging conditions.
  2. Scalability: Whether controlling a single motor or orchestrating complex automation networks, contactors offer scalability, making them suitable for diverse industrial applications.
  3. Safety: With features such as overload protection and arc suppression, contactors enhance operational safety by mitigating the risk of electrical faults and hazards.
  4. Remote Control: Advanced contactor systems are integrable into broader automation frameworks, allowing for remote monitoring and control of industrial processes. This greatly improves operational efficiency and responsiveness.

Challenges and Innovations

While contactors have long been integral to industrial automation, ongoing advancements in technology continue to shape their evolution. Miniaturization, enhanced efficiency, and integration with digital control systems are just some of the areas witnessing innovation within the realm of contactor functionality. Moreover, the advent of predictive maintenance techniques empowered by artificial intelligence promises to further optimize the reliability and performance of contactor systems, minimizing downtime and maximizing productivity.

In Need of Contactors?

.MRO Electric offers a variety of contactors well-suited for your automation needs. For more information on contactors send an email to or call (800) 691-8511. Read more information on components of industrial automation equipment, here.


 From motor control to power distribution, their versatility and reliability make them indispensable assets across a spectrum of industrial applications. As technology marches forward, the evolution of contactors continues, poised to further elevate the efficiency, safety, and scalability of automated systems in the years to come.

The featured image of a blog showcasing how AI reimagines homes if they were in Super Mario’s world.

AI Imagines Each State’s Home in Super Mario’s World

The featured image of a blog showcasing what AI reimagines homes to look like if in Super Mario’s world.

It’s-a me, MRO! As one of the most beloved video game franchises of all time, Super Mario has made us all wonder what life would be like in a world as unique and fun as Mario’s. Since we’re always exploring the capabilities of automation and AI at MRO Electric, we wanted to bring these thoughts to life with an AI image generator. 

To discover if your state’s home would be more like Toad’s House or Peach’s Castle, check out the carousel of images below. Here we go!


We asked ChatGPT to determine which Super Mario games and locations would best suit each state based on themes and brands associated with their geography and culture. From there, we prompted Midjourney with the relevant locations, games, and most popular home design styles in each state to visualize what their homes would look like in Super Mario’s world.

AI Reimagines Every State’s Home in Super Mario’s Style

Mario time! Across the country, many home images visually reference the art style of “Super Mario 64.” From the bold colors to the detailed landscapes, this Mario game seems to represent from coast to coast. Additionally, as you scroll, you will see that the AI slipped in Toad’s bright red mushrooms throughout, solidifying the classic red shroom as one of Mario’s most iconic symbols. 

In classic Mario fashion, it’s all about the castles. Many homes have tall towers and gorgeous windows overlooking the lush plants leading up to the door. Finally, the classic blocky platforms that make the Super Mario games what they are can be seen in the walkways and the base of many homes.  

Arkansas: Daisy’s Castle in Greek Revival Style

An AI-generated image of a home in Arkansas if it was in Super Mario’s world, pulling influence from Daisy’s Castle and Greek revival-style homes.

Arkansas’s home looks very similar to Daisy’s Castle with its orange and yellow theme. There is a clear reference to Peach’s best friend between the arches, towers, and golden doors. There’s even a blooming garden to match her floral namesake! This home’s architecture is based on the Greek Revival style popular in Arkansas, and it can be seen in the columns before the doors. Maybe Arkansans should consider changing their state flower from an apple blossom to a daisy! 

Florida: Renaming the Gulf Coast to Peach Beach

An AI-generated image of a home in Florida if it was in Super Mario’s world, pulling influence from Peach Beach.

Let’s go to the Peach Beach! This setting resembles Peach Beach from “Mario Kart: Double Dash!!” with its faded Y2K colors and palm trees. It also references Peach’s style with the pink flowers and accents. The roof looks like it was made from a shell, which is a nice touch. This house could plop down on the Gulf Coast anytime! 

Michigan: Arts and Crafts Style Meets Mushroom Kingdom

An AI-generated image of a home in Michigan if it was in Super Mario’s world, pulling influence from Arts and Crafts style homes and Mushroom Kingdom.

This image pulls from the New Super Mario Bros style of games with cleaner lines and brighter details, especially with the blocky path that would possibly require a double-jump to get up to. Being the Great Lakes State, this home’s landscape references both the Lake Kingdom and Mushroom Kingdom and the Arts and Crafts style of home depicted is one commonly seen in Michigan. Perhaps a home Mario would have to stop by on his way to save Peach!

Ohio: Industrial Lofts in Toad’s Factory

An AI-generated image of a home in Ohio if it was in Super Mario’s world, pulling influence from Industrial Loft homes and Toad’s Factory.

For Ohio, the AI is pulling from Rust Belt imagery here with the industrial loft homestyle. The art style is much more modern, with the twisting pipes and red accents on a city block. This must be what Toad’s Factory from Mario Kart Wii would look like if it were mixed with New Donk City of Super Mario Odyssey. Downtown Cleveland, watch out! 

Wisconsin: Victorian Home or Luigi’s Mansion?

An AI-generated image of a home in Wisconsin if it was in Super Mario’s world, pulling influence from Victorian homes and Luigi’s Mansion.

This Victorian home in Wisconsin resembles closely to Luigi’s Mansion. Who knew that Luigi is a Cheesehead? It follows Luigi’s style with the green base and purple highlights, as well as the style of his mansion with several stories, windows, and towers. One of the most spectacular references is how the furniture looks covered by a white cloth in the leftmost second-floor window. In Luigi’s mansion, that’s a very common, and spooky, decor choice. As beautiful as this home is, don’t forget that Luigi’s Mansion is haunted!

Closing Thoughts

In addition to the whimsical characters and power-ups, Super Mario’s world is filled with advanced technologies and mechanics. With a supply of innovative products and forward-thinking manufacturers, our team at MRO Electric helps distribute and repair the tools needed to make the world just as cutting-edge and imaginative as AI’s depiction of homes in Super Mario’s world.

Title Graphic About the Most and Longest Power Outages by U.S. State

States with the Most and Longest Power Outages

Title Graphic About the Most and Longest Power Outages by U.S. State

With the constant threat of severe storms, losing power is an inconvenience homeowners and businesses alike can expect. Tropical Storm Risk predicts hurricane activity in the North Atlantic this year could be 50% above the last 50-year norm. Understanding which states are most affected by power outages can help residents better prepare when their electricity fails.

At MRO Electric, we wanted to determine which U.S. states are most at risk of power outages. To find out, we analyzed data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration to determine the average frequency and duration of power outages in each state. Specifically, we used outage data from their annual reports for the last five years (2018-2022). Keep reading to see how your state stacks up.

The U.S. States with the Most and Least Power Outages

With the most annual power outages, Maine is surely left in the dark. The Pine Tree State tops the list with an average of 4.35 power outages every year, a stark increase above the national average of 1.62 per year.

Given that severe weather can lead to outages, it is no surprise that Louisiana is ranked third on our list. According to the National Hurricane Center and USAFacts, Louisiana is one of the most hurricane and tornado-prone states, and with about 2.78 power outages a year, it is not hard to see what is causing these blackouts.

Mississippi, with the most annual tornadoes on average, and Florida, the most hurricane-prone state, also suffer from outages with 2.25 and 2.18 outages per year on average, respectively. The South, with its frequent severe storms, was the region with the most power outages on average and these states certainly contributed. Comparatively, the South experiences about 1.97 power outages a year, the Northeast encounters about 1.64, the West has about 1.50 on average, and the Midwest comes in last with about 1.31 power outages in a year.

The District of Columbia suffered the least from power outages, with about 0.47 per year on average. Utah and Wisconsin are close second and third with 0.60 and 0.75 annual outages, respectively.

Another factor that should be considered when determining the severity of a power outage is how long the outage lasts. Now, let’s take a look at which states had the longest and shortest power outage durations.

The U.S. States with the Longest & Shortest Power Outages

As mentioned earlier, Louisiana is a hurricane and tornado-prone state. This may be why Louisiana has the longest average annual power outages of any state, with an annual average of more than a full day without power (24 hours and 54 minutes), which is four times the national average of 6 hours. Following Louisiana, Maine, with the most average annual outages, also had some of the longest outages lasting up to nearly 16 hours.

Once again, D.C. fares well in terms of outages and has the shortest average annual power outage duration at only an hour of no power on average, which is just a fraction of what Louisiana suffers. Delaware (1 hour and 42 minutes) and Utah (1 hour and 54 minutes) follow, with an average power outage duration of less than two hours. To see more averages of power outage duration, see the map above.

Let’s Shed Some More Light on the Matter…

When evaluating frequency and duration patterns of power outages, major event days (MED), are occurrences that are factored in and necessary for understanding the severity of each. Major event days are defined as any day where outage metrics exceed normal averages. While these can sometimes be attributed to hackers, cyber attacks, and other anomalies, they are usually caused by severe weather patterns like hurricanes and blizzards.

To take a closer look at these power outage metrics across the country, hover over each state in the interactive map below. Find out what you can expect for where you call home.

Closing Thoughts

With the uncertainty of power grid reliability by state in inclement weather, access to quality repairs on weather-damaged parts or new parts is essential. MRO Electric ensures that power outages do not hinder progress by providing experienced service in repairs and same-day delivery of industrial automation supplies.


To determine which U.S. states are most at risk of power outages, we analyzed data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to find out the average frequency and duration of power outages in each state. We used outage data from their annual reports for the last five years (2018-2022). We collected the average duration (SAIDI) and frequency (SAIFI) of outages in each state per year. Then, we aggregated the data into 5-year averages for each state.

We included major event days (MEDs) data in the calculations to ensure we included the most accurate average duration and length of outages per year. A common example of a MED is a serious weather event. Hawaii could not be included in this list due to insufficient data for 2022 and 2021.

Components of a PLC

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) play a crucial role in controlling and monitoring various processes. PLCs are versatile devices designed to automate electromechanical processes, replacing traditional relay-based control systems. Understanding the key components of a PLC is essential for engineers and technicians working in automation. Generally, four main components that make up a PLC.

Read more: Components of a PLC

What is a PLC

In the past we’ve covered PLC’s and what they are, as well has how they function.  The basic run down of a PLC is that it  is a specialized industrial computing device designed to control and automate various processes within manufacturing and industrial environments. It serves as the brain of an automated system, executing programmed instructions to manage machinery, production lines, and other electromechanical processes. PLCs offer flexibility and versatility, enabling engineers and technicians to modify and adapt control logic easily without the need for extensive rewiring or hardware changes.

At the core of a PLC is its Central Processing Unit (CPU), responsible for executing control programs stored in memory. The CPU reads and interprets the instructions, making decisions based on the programmed logic. It then sends signals to output devices such as motors, valves, and sensors. Input modules gather data from the field through various sensors and switches, converting analog or digital signals into a format that the PLC can comprehend. Conversely, output modules translate the processed information from the CPU into signals that control the physical components of the automated system.

The Four Components

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

At the heart of every PLC is the Central Processing Unit (CPU). This component is the brain of the PLC, responsible for executing control programs and processing inputs and outputs. The CPU reads the program from memory, interprets the instructions, and sends signals to the output devices based on the program’s logic. Modern PLCs come with powerful CPUs capable of handling complex control tasks and communication with other devices on the industrial network.

Input Modules

Input modules are responsible for interfacing the PLC with the external world by collecting data from various sensors and switches. These modules convert analog or digital signals from field devices into a format that the PLC can understand. Digital input modules handle binary signals (on/off). In contrast, analog input modules process continuous signals such as voltage or current. Input modules are crucial for monitoring the state of the controlled system and providing real-time feedback to the PLC’s CPU.

Output Modules

Output modules facilitate communication between the PLC and the external devices such as motors, valves, or actuators. These modules convert signals from the CPU into a form that can control the physical processes in the industrial environment. Just like input modules, there are digital output modules for binary control and analog output modules for continuous control. The accuracy and reliability of output modules are vital for ensuring that the controlled system responds appropriately to the PLC’s commands.


PLCs have two types of memory: RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read-Only Memory). RAM is used for storing the control program and data temporarily while the PLC is powered on. ROM contains the firmware and the operating system that are essential for the PLC’s functionality. The memory capacity of a PLC varies, and it is crucial to choose a PLC with sufficient memory to accommodate the complexity of the control program and the amount of data processing required.


Programmable Logic Controllers have revolutionized industrial automation, providing a robust and flexible solution for controlling and monitoring complex processes. Understanding the four main components of a PLC – CPU, Input Modules, Output Modules, and Memory – is fundamental for anyone working in the field of industrial automation. As technology advances, PLCs continue to evolve, incorporating new features and capabilities. Furthermore PLCs enhance their role in modern manufacturing and industrial processes.