The Most & Least Power Outages by U.S. State

These days, manufacturing is inextricably linked to the power grid. Many manufacturing processes are now automated using increasingly complex software programs and robotic machines that rely on a constant supply of electricity. So when a blackout occurs, more than just the lights go out in a typical factory. Outages can amount to critical failure and gobs of lost revenue for all stakeholders involved.

At MRO Electric, we wanted to find out which U.S. states experience the most and least power outages and electrical downtime. To accomplish that, we collected and analyzed the latest electrical reliability data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Specifically, we pulled the average annual frequency and duration of power outages per customer for each U.S. state from 2015 through 2019. Read on to see what we found. 

The U.S. States with the Most and Least Power Outages

The Top 10 States with the Most and Least Power Outages in the U.S.

Maine saw the highest average number of power outages at nearly four per year. This is significantly higher than the runner up, West Virginia, which experienced an average of 2.8 outages per year. Within the other eight states with the most outages, customers could expect an average of around 2 blackouts each year.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, the District of Columbia suffered the fewest outages at an average of 0.7 per year. Wisconsin, Utah, and Massachusetts averaged 0.8 outages annually, Arizona had an average of one per year, and the other five states on the list all tied for an annual average of 1.1 outages. 

But the number of power outages only tells half of the story. For a comprehensive picture of electrical reliability, we also looked into the average duration of outages in every state.

The U.S. States with the Most and Least Electrical Downtime

The Top 10 States with the Most and Least Electrical Downtime in the U.S.

Interestingly, Maine not only experienced the highest average number of outages per year but also held the second most average annual downtime in the country. According to our calculations, downtime in Maine averaged 14.1 hours, beaten only by Florida’s 14.6 hours. Mississippi and Oklahoma show up on both lists as well, making them poor overall contenders for electrical reliability.

On the flip side, the District of Columbia receives top marks yet again with just an hour and a half of downtime on average—while still a significant number in the manufacturing world, it only represents 10% of the agonizing downtime experienced by factories that are affected by the average Floridian blackout.

Use the interactive map below to view the full data set for every U.S. state.

Impact of Major Event Days on Electrical Reliability

The Impact of Major Events on Power Outages in the U.S.

Major event days are defined as any day where outage metrics exceed normal averages. While these can sometimes be attributed to hackers, cyber attacks, and other anomalies, they are usually caused by severe weather patterns like hurricanes and blizzards.

However, these troublesome outliers are fairly rare and don’t do much to increase the average number of outages by state. In Maine, consistently ahead of the pack in terms of number and duration of outages, major events only cause 0.7 additional outages per year on average. That brings Maine’s overall average to 3.9 outages per year.

The same can’t be said for duration, though. Surprisingly, major event days cause a whopping 9 hours of additional average downtime in Maine each year. The resulting 14.5 hours is over 150% more than the 5.5 hours of downtime recorded when major events are not considered.

Considering the ten states with the most downtime overall, major events are culpable for as little as 3.6 hours and as much as 12 hours of average annual downtime. In Florida, the average downtime including major events is more than 580% longer than when major events are excluded. Needless to say, when major event days occur, they make a huge difference in terms of how long it takes to get the power back on.


The automation of manufacturing tasks has untold benefits in efficiency and output. The automotive industry, for instance, makes use of robotics for many tasks including welding, painting, and even hauling heavy parts to build more cars in less time. And yet, relying on these impressive technologies means that when you don’t have electricity, you don’t have production.

You may not be able to up and move your factories to one of the states with the least power outages, but you can always rely on MRO Electric to provide a vast array of quality remanufactured and new parts, along with quality repairs to your automation machinery. With MRO Electric, when the power comes back on, you’ll be ready for business.

Control Techniques Lineup

Benefits of Buying Refurbished Industrial Automation Equipment

At MRO Electric and Supply, we offer a wide range of repaired, refurbished and reconditioned automation products for each of our manufacturer lines. We never supply used, untested, second-hand parts. Each of our refurbished parts is fully cleaned, serviced, functionally tested, and upgraded to optimal working order before being made available for sale. We also place each of our reconditioned products in like-new packaging for easy identification, transportation, and storage.

Benefits of Refurbished Automation Products:

1. Availability
For many obsolete and legacy automation product lines, finding new, unused parts can be a challenging task. Oftentimes, searching for unavailable new parts can cause unreasonably long lead times which increases the risk of downtime. MRO Electric stocks a variety of refurbished products with same-day and next-day shipping options, while keeps the risk of downtime to a minimum.

2. Price
Refurbished products tend to be significantly less expensive than new parts. MRO Electric offers many refurbished items for up to 75% less than their new counterparts. This deep discounting allows our customers to stock up on spares while minimizing their costs.

3. Equivalence
Purchasing an exact replacement prevents compatibility issues versus upgrading to a newer component. For some manufacturers, it is better to stick with tried and true systems than risk purchasing a different part that may not function correctly with their process.

4. Reliability
Just because a part has been refurbished does not mean that it won’t last as long as new. Additionally, many of our refurbished parts have seen little or no use throughout their lifetime. We are extremely confident in the reliability of our refurbishment process, and warranty all of our products for a minimum of 12 months.

                            Our Top Manufacturers
 Siemens     FANUC                              Yaskawa          ABB
Control Techniques

Benefits of Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing Businesses

Picture via Unsplash

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been a great benefit to industries across the board, but its role in the manufacturing industry has grown exponentially in the past few years. From predictive machine maintenance to improved supply chain communication, read below for some ways that AI benefits manufacturing businesses.

Supply chain communication

There are a lot of moving parts when it comes to manufacturing, and AI can help streamline communication throughout the supply chain. According to LiveMint’s report on supply chain modernization, companies who work with delivery partners can leverage AI to provide timely feedback and dynamic pricing to their customers. This communication doesn’t stop with delivery companies, either. With manufacturing companies often offshoring production to different parts of the globe, time is of the essence when it comes to stocking products and making them ready for delivery. Such communication is crucial in today’s health crisis, where companies with global operations are scrambling to consolidate tasks and remain in business.

Predictive maintenance

Manufacturing businesses work around the clock, which is why reducing machine downtime is of the utmost importance. This is extremely helpful for electronic manufacturers who rely on machines to help build tiny, specified components such as chips and printed circuit boards (PCBs). Metal core PCB guidelines published by Altium outline how multiple layers of materials such as copper, iron, and aluminum need to be surrounded by epoxy resin to ensure structural integrity. From aerospace to military usage, these tiny products must be able to withstand extreme temperatures, moisture, and the like. As such, it’s imperative that the machines making these products are built to last. Predictive maintenance through AI helps keep production delays at a minimum while also ensuring that quality products are continuously being sent out.

Waste reduction

In a world that’s increasingly focusing on environmental sustainability and green living, all eyes are on the manufacturing industry and their efforts to decrease waste. In our post on the ‘Benefits of Buying Refurbished Industrial Automation Equipment’ we wrote about the benefits of refurbished parts, but AI can help create this circularity on a larger scale. Czech automotive company ŠKODA has produced zero landfill waste since the start of this year, providing an example of eco-friendly manufacturing that businesses should follow. ŠKODA’s production facilities minimize waste from the outset, from using greener materials to recycling them when possible. AI helps kick start greener operations by guiding businesses to produce just enough material as needed, thereby predicting product demand and stocking their inventories accordingly.

Optimized design processes

Artificial intelligence doesn’t just help speed up the production process: it can help make better designs, too. Machine Design defines generative design as a way for AI to refine initial designs by checking for places where mass can be safely removed. After being fed an initial design and parameters, the AI crunches through various potential uses that the machine may go through. It then tests these solutions through numerous simulations, all leading to a refined design that takes into account factors such as fluid dynamics, thermal properties, and fabrication methods. Experts predict that generative design will change the manufacturing world as we know it, leading to truly innovative solutions.

Dozens of industries lean on manufacturing in one way or another, which is precisely why innovative manufacturing solutions can make a huge global impact. These four uses of AI in manufacturing hint at how this dynamic industry will continue to evolve.

What is a DCS?

DCS stands for “Distributed Control System” which is an automated control system that streamlines the functionalities of the different devices used throughout a work space. DCS utilizes a wide range of controllers to permit all the parts to converse with one another just as PCs do. These controllers are distributed geographically across a plant to allow for high-speed communication to the control process. When utilizing various kinds of modules, the framework may require diverse correspondence norms, for example, Modbus and Profibus.

Learn the difference between a Distributed Control System (DCS) and a Programmable  Logic Controller (PLC) here: PLC vs. DCS: What’s the difference? – MRO Blog

Components of a DCS

A distributed control system or DCS is a control system in which the controller components are not local but are dispersed throughout the system with every component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. The entire arrangement of controllers is associated by systems for correspondence and observing. DCS is an extremely wide term utilized in an assortment of enterprises, to monitor and control hardware. Below is a list of places that use Distributed Control Systems.

  • Radio signals
  • Dry cargo and bulk oil carrier ships
  • Electrical power grids and electrical generation plants
  • Traffic signals
  • Water management systems
  • Oil refining plants
  • Chemical plants
  • Sensor networks
  • Environmental control systems

History of the DCS

The first Distributed Control System was made by Honeywell in 1969. This new design depended on a vast distributed control to the computer modules. Every one of these modules controlled a few different processors, for the most part, one to four. They were associated with a high-speed data communications link, known as a data highway which made communications between each of the computer modules and the central operator console possible. This plan permitted the administrator to monitor the activity of every local process. 

Moving forward, microprocessor-based modules replaced hardwired computer modules in the 1970’s. However, Today’s distributed control systems are much more powerful and faster than the early systems because of advancements in microprocessors and other electronic circuits. The next section of this blog illustrates how a present DCS operates and is shown in the diagram below.

DCS Operation “ The Three Qualities”

A DCS has three main qualities. The first quality is the conveyance of different control capacities into little arrangements of subsystems, which are of semiautonomous, and are interconnected through a rapid correspondence transport. A portion of these capacities incorporate securing information, information introduction, process control, process supervision, revealing data, and the saving and recovery of data.

The second trait of DCS is the computerization of assembling processes by coordinating propelled control techniques. Furthermore, the third quality of the DCS is organizing the entire process as a system. A DCS sorts out the whole control structure as a solitary computerization system where different subsystems are brought together through an appropriate order and data stream.

These qualities of the DCS are shown in the figure below. The essential architecture in a DCS include engineering workstation, operating station or HMI, process control unit or local control unit, smart devices, and a communication system.

Important Features of a DCS

  1. HMI: A DCS can monitor and control through HMI’s, otherwise known as a Human Machine Interface, which gives adequate information to the administrator to charge over different procedures which acts as the center of the system. However, this type of industrial control system covers large areas whereas a DCS covers one region. A DCS uses the whole process plant to control the process as a PC window. Trending, logging and graphical representation of the HMI’s give effective user interface. A Powerful alarming system of a DCS helps operators to respond more quickly to the plant’s shape when needed. 
  2. Security: Access to control the various processes leads to plant safety. The DCS design offers a perfect and secure system to handle framework functions for top notch factory automation control. Security is also provided at different levels such as an operator level, engineer level, and an entrepreneur level.
  3. The handling of complex procedures: APLC or Programmable Logic Controller is utilized to control and monitor the procedure parameters at a rapid speed. Click here for more information about PLCs. However, a DCS is preferred for more complex control applications because with a higher number of I/O’s with dedicated controllers, it is able to handle such processes. These are used in assembling processes where the structuring of various products is in multiple procedures such as a batch process control.

Considerations When Choosing a DCS

The bulk of control system decisions include the use of a programmable logic controller (PLC) or a distributed control system (DCS). In some cases one alternative is clearly better for a plant while the choice is not as simple in others. Selecting the control system entails several considerations that will help the customer meet their short-and long-term goals.

Difference between PLC and DCS systems: A PLC is an industrial computer that is built to control manufacturing processes such as robots, high-speed packaging, bottling, and motion control. In the last 20 years, PLCs have gained functionality and provide benefits for small plant applications. PLCs are usually solitary islands of automation that can be unified so they can communicate with one another. PLCs are great for smaller applications that are unlikely to expand in the future. 

A DCS distributes controllers throughout the automation system and offers a standard guidance, automated monitoring, a systemwide database, and easy-to-share information. DCSs are commonly used in process applications and larger plants, and are easier to maintain throughout the plant’s life cycle for large device applications.

The Application type determines the platform: PLCs and DCSs are typically suited to one of two forms of production: discrete manufacturing and process manufacturing. Discrete manufacturing facilities, which typically use PLCs, consist of separate manufacturing units which generally assemble components, such as labeling or fill-and-finish applications. Facilities for process manufacturing typically use DCSs, automate continuous and batch processes and enforce formulations consisting of components rather than parts. Process manufacturing facilities calculate their production in bulk. DCS automation is used by large continuous process installations, such as refineries and chemical plants.

Several aspects must be considered when finding the right DCS such as:

  • Process size
  • Integration needs
  • Functionality
  • High availability
  • Expansion or modification plans
  • ROI on the facilities lifespan

What is a PLC?

A Programmable Logic Controller, abbreviated as “PLC” is a computer used to address the issues of a particular assembling process. These devices come in a wide range of shapes and sizes, with numerous alternatives for computerized and simple I/O, as well as protection from high temperatures, vibration, and electrical noise. The invention of the PLC allows for computers to be streamlined into the industrial automation process.

A PLC can be a solitary device figuring and executing operations, or a rack of various modules utilized to meet whatever your automation system requires. A portion of the extra parts include processors, power supplies, additional IO, interfaces, and more. Each part cooperates to have the option to run open or shut circle activities that are appraised at fast and high accuracy. Take a CNC machine for instance; a PLC would be utilized to control positioning, motion, and torque control. These devices are popular since they are inexpensive in relation to the amount of power and lifespan they possess. PLCs can run for hours on end. 

The diagram below displays the process of a Programmable Logic Controller system.

History of PLCs

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) first hit the scene in the late 1960s. The essential purpose behind planning such a device was eliminating the high cost required to replace the complicated relay based control systems for major U.S. vehicle makers. There was a primary issue and that was that they were mechanical. This implies that they wear out and must be replaced from time to time. Additionally, relays take up too much room. These, alongside different contemplations, prompted the advancement of PLCs. More enhancements to PLCs happened during the ’70s. In 1973 the ability to communicate between PLCs was introduced. This made it possible to have the controlling circuit perform at a distance from the machine it was controlling. In several cases, the absence of institutionalization in PLCs caused a few different issues. This was improved in the 1980s. The size of PLCs was additionally decreased, which meant plants were utilizing space much more effectively. The ’90s expanded the assortment of manners by which a PLC could be modified such as block programs and a guidance list. They also observed PLCs being replaced by PC’s in a few cases. Be that as it may, PLCs are still being used in a wide range of businesses, and it’s going to remain that way in the foreseeable future.

How It Works “The Three Tasks”

The way a PLC works is very straightforward: The PLC receives data from associated sensors or information devices, processes the information, and triggers outputs dependent on pre-customized parameters. 

Depending on the inputs and outputs, a PLC can monitor and record run-time data such as machine productivity or operating temperature, automatically start and stop processes, generate alarms if a machine malfunctions, and that’s just the beginning. Programmable Logic Controllers are a versatile and powerful control arrangement, adaptable to practically any application.

A PLC essentially performs three tasks: a PLC checks the information inputs, goes through the program, and changes the outputs. Then, it circles back to the top and starts once more. This appears incredibly straightforward, however, it tends to be made very complex with various sources of I/O. The scan time is the time it takes for the PLC to experience the three fundamental tasks. This time is significant, as it influences how rapidly the inputs of info can be read. The sources of info should be on or off long enough for the PLC to read them. On the off chance that they are not on that long, issues begin to occur. Luckily, there are approaches to fix this issue. Perhaps the most ideal way is to utilize an interrupt at whatever point an input goes to high. This will guarantee that the PLC doesn’t miss the change.

Inputs and Outputs (I/Os)

As we’ve seen up until this point, inputs and outputs are very important to the activity of a PLC. Two key components to consider in picking the privilege PLC are the quantity of I/Os and their location. Since PLC controls undergo a large process, you will need to ensure it can deal with various I/Os. The quantity of both analog and discrete devices that your system has will affect this choice too. Remember that the quantity of I/Os will likewise decide the size of your PLC’s body. The location of I/Os will also have an effect on your choice. Will your framework require a local I/O, or will you need both local and remote I/Os? Subsystems are needed to answer these questions sufficiently. Keep in mind that the speeds and distance at which your PLC operates is important for this.

PLC Acronyms Worth Knowing

These acronyms will help you better understand what exactly you are looking for.

ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange
BCDBinary Coded Decimal
CSACanadian Standards Association
DIODistributed I/O
EIAElectronic Industries Association
EMIElectroMagnetic Interference
HMIHuman Machine Interface
IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission
IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
I/OInput(s) and/or Output(s)
ISOInternational Standards Organization
LLLadder Logic
LSBLeast Significant Bit
MMIMan Machine Interface
MODICONModular Digital Controller
MSBMost Significant Bit
PIDProportional Integral Derivative (feedback control)
RFRadio Frequency
RIORemote I/O
RTURemote Terminal Unit
SCADASupervisory Control And Data Acquisition
TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

What to Consider When Buying a PLC

  • Will the framework be powered
  •  by AC or DC voltage? 
  • Will the system be situated in one spot or spread out over a huge region?
  • Does the system run quick enough to meet my application’s necessities? 
  • What kind of programming is utilized to program the PLC? 
  • Whenever required by your application, can the PLC handle simple data inputs and outputs, or perhaps a mix of both? How am I going to speak with my PLC? 
  • Do I need to arrange availability and would it be able to be added to my PLC? 
  • Will the PLC have the option to deal with the quantity of information inputs and outputs that my application requires? 
  • Does the PLC have enough memory to run my user program? 
  • Inputs and Outputs (I/Os)

Looking To Buy?

Check out our collection of PLCs at the link “Showing PLC”  below. We provide you with the thousands of Program Logic Controllers by the brands Schneider Electric, SIEMENS, and Yaskawa at the best prices. Below are just a few PLC devices we have for sale on our website. Please visit and contact us if you have any questions.  Showing PLC.

G Code CNC

G Code

As a generic name for a plain-text language in which CNC machine are able to understand, G-Codes are important to understand in the manufacturing, automation and engineering spaces. You can enter a G-Code manually if you wish, but you do not have to because of the CAD/CAM software’ abilities along with the machine controller.  G-Codes are not necessarily readable by humans, but it’s possible to look through the file and determine what is generally occurring.

In the factory automation space, nobody likes downtime and receiving error codes. While using CNCs (view FANUC CNC parts here), many professionals are faced with G Codes. By definition, a G Code is a computer code language that is used to guide CNC machine devices to perform specific motions. A few examples of specific motions would be:

  • canned cycles
  • work coordinates
  • several repetitive cycles.
G Code: canned cycles-

Also referred to as a fixed cycle, canned cycles are ways to effectively and efficiently perform repetitive CNC machining operations. They automate specific machining functions. A few examples would be pocketing, threading, and drilling. A canned cycle is almost always stored as a pre-program in a machine’s controller. To learn more about canned cycles, check out this article courtesy of

G Code: work coordinates-

The G Code coordinate pipeline goes something like this:

  • Unit conversion to metric
  • Convert from relative to absolute and polar to Cartesian: g90g91XYZ()
  • G52, G54, and G92 offsets
  • G51 scaling
  • G68 coordinate rotation

G-Code is the most popular programming language used for programming CNC machinery. Some G words alter the state of the machine so that it changes from cutting straight lines to cutting arcs. Other G words cause the interpretation of numbers as millimeters rather than inches. Some G words set or remove tool length or diameter offsets. Be sure to check out our article covering FANUC CNC Codes here.

MRO Electric and Supply has new and refurbished FANUC CNC parts available. We also offer repair pricing. For more information, please call 800-691-8511 or email

Tool Parameters, Feeds, and Speeds

Listed below are some easily-understood G-code commands in which are used for setting the speed, feed, and tool parameters.

F= Feed

The F command’s purpose is to set the feed rate. Keep in mind, the machine operates at the specified speed rate when G1 is used, G1 commands are set to operate at the set F value.

An error is likely to occur if the feed rate (F) isn’t set once before the first G1 call.  Here is an example:

  • G1 F1500 X100 Y100

S= Spindle Speed

The S command’s purpose is to set the spindle speed. The Spindle speed is almost always set in RPMs (revolutions per minute). Here is an example:

  • S10000

T= Tool

The T command’s purpose is paired with M6 in order to display the tool number to be used for cutting the current file. Here is an example:

  • M6 T1
Below is a complete listing of G Codes:
  • G00     Rapid traverse 
  • G01     Linear interpolation with feed rate
  • G02     Circular interpolation (clockwise)
  • G03     Circular interpolation (counterclockwise)
  • G2/G3   Helical interpolation
  • G04     Dwell time in milliseconds
  • G05     Spline definition
  • G06     Spline interpolation
  • G07     Tangential circular interpolation, Helix interpolation, Polygon interpolation, Feedrate interpolation
  • G08     Ramping function at block transition / Look ahead “off”
  • G09     No ramping function at block transition / Look ahead “on”
  • G10     Stop dynamic block preprocessing
  • G11     Stop interpolation during block preprocessing
  • G12     Circular interpolation (CW) with radius
  • G13     Circular interpolation (CCW) with radius
  • G14     Polar coordinate programming, absolute
  • G15     Polar coordinate programming, relative
  • G16     Definition of the pole point of the polar coordinate system
  • G17     Selection of the X, Y plane
  • G18     Selection of the Z, X plane
  • G19     Selection of the Y, Z plane
  • G20     Selection of a freely definable plane
  • G21     Parallel axes “on”
  • G22     Parallel axes “off”
  • G24     Safe zone programming; lower limit values
  • G25     Safe zone programming; upper limit values
  • G26     Safe zone programming “off”
  • G27     Safe zone programming “on”
  • G33     Thread cutting with constant pitch
  • G34     Thread cutting with dynamic pitch
  • G35     Oscillation configuration
  • G38     Mirror imaging “on”
  • G39     Mirror imaging “off”
  • G40     Path compensations “off”
  • G41     Path compensation left of the workpiece contour
  • G42     Path compensation right of the workpiece contour
  • G43     Path compensation left of the workpiece contour with altered approach
  • G44     Path compensation right of the workpiece contour with altered approach
  • G50     Scaling
  • G51     Part rotation; programming in degrees
  • G52     Part rotation; programming in radians
  • G53     Zero offset off
  • G54     Zero offset #1
  • G55     Zero offset #2
  • G56     Zero offset #3
  • G57     Zero offset #4
  • G58     Zero offset #5
  • G59     Zero offset #6
  • G63 Feed/spindle override not active
  • G66 Feed/spindle override active
  • G70     Inch format active
  • G71     Metric format active
  • G72     Interpolation with precision stop “off”
  • G73     Interpolation with precision stop “on”
  • G74     Move to home position
  • G75     Curvature function activation
  • G76     Curvature acceleration limit
  • G78     Normalcy function “on” (rotational axis orientation)
  • G79     Normalcy function “off”
G80 – G89 for milling applications:
  • G80     Canned cycle “off”
  • G81     Drilling to final depth canned cycle
  • G82     Spot facing with dwell time canned cycle
  • G83     Deep hole drilling canned cycle
  • G84     Tapping or Thread cutting with balanced chuck canned cycle
  • G85     Reaming canned cycle
  • G86     Boring canned cycle
  • G87     Reaming with measuring stop canned cycle
  • G88     Boring with spindle stop canned cycle
  • G89     Boring with intermediate stop canned cycle
G81 – G88 for cylindrical grinding applications:
  • G81     Reciprocation without plunge
  • G82     Incremental face grinding
  • G83     Incremental plunge grinding
  • G84     Multi-pass face grinding
  • G85     Multi-pass diameter grinding
  • G86     Shoulder grinding
  • G87     Shoulder grinding with face plunge
  • G88     Shoulder grinding with diameter plunge
  • G90     Absolute programming
  • G91     Incremental programming
  • G92     Position preset
  • G93     Constant tool circumference velocity “on” (grinding wheel)
  • G94     Feed in mm / min (or inch / min)
  • G95     Feed per revolution (mm / rev or inch / rev)
  • G96     Constant cutting speed “on”
  • G97     Constant cutting speed “off”
  • G98     Positioning axis signal to PLC
  • G99     Axis offset
  • G100   Polar transformation “off”
  • G101   Polar transformation “on”
  • G102   Cylinder barrel transformation “on”; cartesian coordinate system
  • G103   Cylinder barrel transformation “on,” with real-time-radius compensation (RRC)
  • G104   Cylinder barrel transformation with centerline migration (CLM) and RRC
  • G105   Polar transformation “on” with polar axis selections
  • G106   Cylinder barrel transformation “on” polar-/cylinder-coordinates
  • G107   Cylinder barrel transformation “on” polar-/cylinder-coordinates with RRC
  • G108   Cylinder barrel transformation polar-/cylinder-coordinates with CLM and RRC
  • G109   Axis transformation programming of the tool depth
  • G110   Power control axis selection/channel 1
  • G111   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 1 (Voltage, Frequency, Time)
  • G112   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 1
  • G113   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 1
  • G114   Power control pre-selection T4/channel 1
  • G115   Power control pre-selection T5/channel 1
  • G116   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output
  • G117   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output
  • G120   Axis transformation; orientation changing of the linear interpolation rotary axis
  • G121   Axis transformation; orientation change in a plane
  • G125   Electronic gearbox; plain teeth
  • G126   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, axial
  • G127   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, tangential
  • G128   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, diagonal
  • G130   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G131   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G132   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G133   Zero lag thread cutting “on”
  • G134   Zero lag thread cutting “off”
  • G140   Axis transformation; orientation designation workpiece fixed coordinates
  • G141   Axis transformation; orientation designation active coordinates
  • G160   ART activation
  • G161   ART learning function for velocity factors “on”
  • G162   ART learning function deactivation
  • G163   ART learning function for acceleration factors
  • G164   ART learning function for acceleration changing
  • G165   Command filter “on”
  • G166   Command filter “off”
  • G170   Digital measuring signals; block transfer with hard stop
  • G171   Digital measuring signals; block transfer without hard stop
  • G172   Digital measuring signals; block transfer with smooth stop
  • G175   SERCOS-identification number “write”
  • G176   SERCOS-identification number “read”
  • G180   Axis transformation “off”
  • G181   Axis transformation “on” with not rotated coordinate system
  • G182   Axis transformation “on” with rotated/displaced coordinate system
  • G183   Axis transformation; definition of the coordinate system
  • G184   Axis transformation; programming tool dimensions
  • G186   Look ahead; corner acceleration; circle tolerance
  • G188   Activation of the positioning axes
  • G190   Diameter programming deactivation
  • G191   Diameter programming “on” and display of the contact point
  • G192   Diameter programming; only display contact point diameter
  • G193   Diameter programming; only display contact point actual axes center point
  • G200   Corner smoothing “off”
  • G201   Corner smoothing “on” with defined radius
  • G202   Corner smoothing “on” with defined corner tolerance
  • G203   Corner smoothing with defined radius up to maximum tolerance
  • G210   Power control axis selection/Channel 2
  • G211   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/Channel 2
  • G212   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/Channel 2
  • G213   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/Channel 2
  • G214   Power control pre-selection T4/Channel 2
  • G215   Power control pre-selection T5/Channel 2
  • G216   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 2
  • G217   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 2
  • G220   Angled wheel transformation “off”
  • G221   Angled wheel transformation “on”
  • G222   Angled wheel transformation “on” but angled wheel moves before others
  • G223   Angled wheel transformation “on” but angled wheel moves after others
  • G265   Distance regulation – axis selection
  • G270   Turning finishing cycle
  • G271   Stock removal in turning
  • G272   Stock removal in facing
  • G274   Peck finishing cycle
  • G275   Outer diameter / internal diameter turning cycle
  • G276   Multiple pass threading cycle
  • G310   Power control axes selection /channel 3
  • G311   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 3
  • G312   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 3
  • G313   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 3
  • G314   Power control pre-selection T4/channel 3
  • G315   Power control pre-selection T5/channel 3
  • G316   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 3
  • G317   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 3

In conclusion, becoming well-versed on CNC G-Codes, along with other codes associated with CNCs is imperative in this day and age. By having up-to-speed knowledge of CNC codes, you could most definitely set yourself apart from the average Joe.

FANUC Controls Alarms

Fanuc Power Supply Alarm Codes – Alpha Series

Recently we had a customer who was working on troubleshooting a FANUC CNC Power Supply alarm that he had on a machine. He was wondering what the different codes stood for, so we wanted to go ahead and list the different alarm codes for this series. These codes apply to power supplies that start with the following prefixes. The “X”s after the H will be numbered, so an example part number is A06B-6087-H130.


Here is a list of the alarm codes for these series of Power Supply Modules.

AL01: The main circuit power module (IPM) has detected am Error (PSM-5.5,-11)
Overcurrent flows into the input of the main circuit (PSM-15 to –30).

AL02: A cooling fan for the control circuit has stopped.

AL03: The Temperature of the main circuit heat sink has risen abnormally.

AL04: In the main circuit the DC voltage (DC Link) has dropped.

AL05: The main circuit capacitor was not recharged within the specified time.

AL06: The Input Power Supply is abnormal (open phase).

AL07: In the main circuit the DC Voltage at the DC link is abnormally high.

Be sure to check out our article covering FANUC CNC Troubleshooting Frequently Asked Questions here.

A06B-6087-H130 alarm codes

For more information or to get a quote on a FANUC power supply, please call 800-691-8511 or email

We also provide repair services for FANUC Power Supplies.

PLC vs. DCS: What’s the difference?

Before we get into the differences of a PLC’s and DCS’s, we need to talk about what each of them are designed to do.

What is a PLC?

A PLC, or Programmable Logic Controller, is a computer that has been adapted to specifically meet the needs of any specific manufacturing process. These devices come in many different shapes and sizes, with many options for digital and analog I/O, as well as protection from high temperatures, vibration, and electrical noise. The invention of the PLC allowed computers to be streamlined into the industrial automation process.

A PLC can be a single device calculating and executing operations, or a rack of different modules may be used to meet whatever your automation system requires. Some of the additional components include processors, power supplies, additional IO, interfaces, and much more.  Every part works together to be able to run open or closed loop operations that are rated at high speed and high precision. Take a CNC machine for example; a PLC would be used to control positioning and motion, as well as torque control. These devices are popular because they are very inexpensive relative to the amount of power and how many hours you get out of them.

 What is a DCS?

A Distributed Control System is an automated control system that streamlines the functionalities of the various devices that are used throughout an entire work space. This type of system uses many different controllers to allow all the machining parts to talk to each other as well as computers that can input parameters and display information such as power usage, speed, and much more. These controllers are distributed geographically across a plant to allow for high-speed communication to the control room. When using different types of modules however, the system may require different communication standards such as Modbus and Profibus. DCS’s started coming to fruition throughout the 1960’s once the microcomputer was brought widespread into the market.

Then what exactly is the difference?

A PLC will probably be used to control a machine that isn’t too complex wheres the DCS can have total control of all the operations in an entire plant. The PLC is preferred in situations where the machine does not have to worry about meeting specific conditions inside the plant. These conditions typically involve operations that may need to stop or restart, as well maintaining precise temperatures. A DCS will be able to take advantage of all the aspects of an automated system, from the machines and sensors to the controllers and computers. An entire DCS is much more expensive than a few PLC’s, but each have their advantages in any given situation and certain automated systems will always require one over the other.

Visit MRO Electric and Supply’s website to see all of our available Programmable Logic Controllers. If we don’t have what you need listed on the site, contact us at or (800)691-8511 and we will be happy to help.

ATV11-ATV12 Substitution Chart

Below is a chart that shows the direct replacement from ATV11 to ATV12 drives. MRO Electric and Supply carries new & refurbished ATV11 and ATV12 units by Schneider Electric.


MagneTek GPD503 Fault Codes

Below is a chart with fault codes regarding the MagneTek G3 GPD503 series drives. MRO Electric and Supply offers free evaluations on units. You can find our RMA form on our repair page. Follow us on Twitter @MROElectric for updates on new products and find any deals we may have.

bbExternal Base Block command
Base Block command at multi-function terminal is active, shutting off GPD 503 output (motor coasting). Temporary condition, cleared when input command is removed.
bUSTransmission error
Control data cannot be received normally for longer than 2 seconds.
CALLCommunication ready
Drive is waiting for the PLC to establish communication.
CPF00Transmission error or control function hardware fault (including internal RAM, external RAM or PROM)
Transmission between GPD 503 and remote operator is not established within 5 seconds after the power supply is turned on. (Displayed on the remote operator.)
CPF01Transmission error
Transmission error occurs 2 seconds or more after transmission has first been established.
CPF02Base block circuit failure
GPD 503 failure.
CPF03NV-RAM (S-RAM) fault
GPD 503 failure.
CPF04NV-RAM (BCC, Access Code)
GPD 503 failure. This fault may be caused after changing EPROM chips. Perform a Sn-03 Reset operation to attempt to clear this fault.
CPF05A/D converter failure in CPU
GPD 503 failure.
CPF06Optional connection failure
Improper installation or wiring of option card.
CPF20A/D converter failure
Defective option card.
CPF21Transmission interface card (option) self-analysis function fault
Defective option card. Check option card connector for proper installation.
CPF22Model code fault
Defective option card. Check option card connector for proper installation.
CPF23Mutual-analysis function fault
Defective option card. Check option card connector for proper installation.
EF (blinking)Simultaneous forward and reverse operation commands
Fwd Run and Rev Run commands are both closed for more than 500 ms. Removing one command will allow drive operation.
EF0External fault
GPD 503 is in Stop mode.
EF3Ext. fault signal at term. 3
A fault condition has occurred in the external circuit(s) monitored by the contact providing input to the indicated terminal. If display is steady, GPD 503 is in Stop mode; if display is blinking, the terminal is programmed to allow continued operation after receiving fault input.
EF5Ext. fault signal at term. 5
A fault condition has occurred in the external circuit(s) monitored by the contact providing input to the indicated terminal. If display is steady, GPD 503 is in Stop mode; if display is blinking, the terminal is programmed to allow continued operation after receiving fault input.
EF6Ext. fault signal at term. 6
A fault condition has occurred in the external circuit(s) monitored by the contact providing input to the indicated terminal. If display is steady, GPD 503 is in Stop mode; if display is blinking, the terminal is programmed to allow continued operation after receiving fault input.
EF7Ext. fault signal at term. 7
A fault condition has occurred in the external circuit(s) monitored by the contact providing input to the indicated terminal. If display is steady, GPD 503 is in Stop mode; if display is blinking, the terminal is programmed to allow continued operation after receiving fault input.
EF8Ext. fault signal at term. 8
A fault condition has occurred in the external circuit(s) monitored by the contact providing input to the indicated terminal. If display is steady, GPD 503 is in Stop mode; if display is blinking, the terminal is programmed to allow continued operation after receiving fault input.
ErrConstant write-in fault
Temporary display, in Program mode, indicating that constant setting was not written into EPROM memory.
FAnCooling fan failure
GPD 503 is in Stop mode.
FUFuse blown
DC Bus fuse has cleared. Check for short circuit in output, and check main circuit transistors.
GFGround fault protection
Ground current > approx. 50% of the GPD 503 rated current.
GPD 503 output current exceeds 200% of GPD 503 rated current, or ground fault has occurred, with ground current exceeding 50% of GPD 503 rated current.
oHHeat sink overheated
Fin temperature exceeds 90° C (194° F)
oH2 (blinking)External overheat
External temperature monitoring circuit(s) detected an overtemperature condition and produced an input signal.
Thermal motor overload protection has tripped.
GPD 503 overload protection has tripped.
oL3 (blinking)Overload
GPD 503 output torque exceeds the set Overtorque Detection level, but GPD 503 is programmed for continued operation at overtorque detection.
GPD 503 output torque exceeds the set Overtorque Detection level, and GPD 503 is programmed for coast to stop at overtorque detection.
oPE01kVA constant setting fault
Sn-01 setting is incorrect.
oPE02Constant setting range fault
An-XX, bn-XX, Cn-XX, or Sn-XX setting range fault.
oPE03Constant set value fault
Sn-15 to -18 (multi-function input) set value fault.
oPE04Constant set value fault
PG constant, number of poles, or PG division rate set incorrectly.
oPE10Constant set value fault
Cn-02 to -08 (V/f data) set incorrectly.
oPE11Constant set value fault
One of the following conditions was detected: • Cn-23 > 5 KHz and Cn-24 5 KHz or • Cn-25 > 6 and Cn-24 > Cn-23
ou (blinking)Overvoltage
Internal monitor of DC Bus voltage indicates that input AC power is excessively high, while GPD 503 is in stopped condition.
ouOvervoltage (OV)
Detection level: Approx. 400V for 230V; Approx. 800V for 460V; Approx. 1000V for 575V.
rrRegenerative transistor Failure
Dynamic Braking resistor has failed.
rHBraking resistor unit overheated
Dynamic Braking resistor has overheated.
Uu (blinking)Low voltage (Power UV)
Internal monitor of DC Bus voltage indicates that input AC power is below Undervoltage detection level, while the GPD 503 is in stopped condition.
Uu1 Low voltage (Power UV)Occurs two seconds after detection of low voltage.
Uu2 Low voltage UVControl circuit voltage levels drop below acceptable levels during operation.
Uu3 Low voltage (MC-ANS fault)Main circuit magnetic contactor does not operate correctly.

Common UNI1405 Fault Codes

Below is a table of common Unidrive faults found within the Control Techniques Unidrive series, more specifically, the UNI1405. MRO Electric offers core credit on exchanges for new and refurbished units, and have a wide selection of option cards such as the UD51, UD73, and UD77. We also repair Unidrives in-house. Contact us if you are interested in finding a new machine so we can keep your downtime to a minimum!

HF81Software Error (odd address word)
HF82Large option module removed
HF83Power Board Code Failure
HF84Current Offset Trim Failure
HF85A to D failure (ES-CC step)
HF86Interrupt Watchdog failure
HF87Internal ROM check error
HF88Watchdog Failure
HF89Unused Interrupts (nmi as source)
HF90Stack Overflow
HF91Stack Underflow
HF92Software Error (undefined op code)
HF93Software Error (protection fault)
HF94Software Error (odd address word)
HF95Software Error (odd address inst.)
HF96Software Error (illegal ext bus)
HF97Level 1 Noise
HF98Interrupt Crash
HF99Level 1 Crash