Most Popular Movie Robot in Every U.S. State

The Most Popular Movie Robot in Every U.S. State

From dystopian stories of service companion androids trying to annihilate the human race, to friendly misunderstood cyborgs, robot movies allow us to catch a glimpse of an unknown universe. What does it mean to be human? Are we replaceable?

Each film takes you on a deep dive into the best and worst parts of technology. But with the exciting journey of each robot film, which bot is most popular?


For this study, we analyzed Google Trends search volumes over the past 12 months for “The Greatest Movie Robots of All Time” in  January 2022. At MRO Electric, our goal was to determine which androids, cyborgs, AI, and bots are America’s favorite.

The Most Popular Movie Robot in the U.S.

Are your batteries charged? Because our results are calculated! Most states were split with their decision, with varying results. However, 6 states each agree R2-D2 and The Sentinels earned the number 1 spot for most beloved bot character. 5 states chose the Tin Man, making it second place, while Robby the Robot was picked by 3. Roy Batty, The Iron Giant, the Autobots, Mechagodzilla, and WALL-E tied for fourth.

The Most Popular Movie Robot Overall

Star Wars is filled with memorable iconic characters, but Second Generation Robotic Droid Series-2, also known as R2-D2, is the most lovable bot in the U.S. According to our research, 6 states think R2-D2 is a force to reckon with: Alabama, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. There’s just something captivating about his playful whistles, beeps, round eyes, and cylindrical body. 

Tied with R2-D2 are The Sentinels, also referred to as a “squiddy” by the Human Resistance in The Matrix. Georgia, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, and South Carolina have the patrolling killing machines stuck on their minds. The terrifying patrollers of the sewers and caverns beneath the planet’s destroyed surface. Unlike R2-D2’s sweet demeanor, these giant squid-like bots tend to intimidatingly fly in swarms like insects and are set on eradicating humankind on behalf of the Machines. 

“A heart is not judged by how much you love; but by how much you are loved by others.” The Wizard of Oz’s Tin Man, despite being without a heart, has captured the hearts of D.C., Idaho, Iowa, Missouri, and Tennessee. Not only did this sensitive bot meet Dorthy second on her journey following the yellow brick road, but also earned second place. Somewhere over a rainbow, his generous and compassionate spirit is still felt by many. 

From the classic Forbidden Planet, Robby the Robot has become one of the most popular bot icons in robot movie history—and 3 states agree. Arkansas, Kentucky, and Minnesota were enchanted by his charming gentleman manners, and maybe wouldn’t mind having their own Robby the Robot. Built by Dr. Morbius, Robby must obey the Law of Robotics: a bot may not injure a human, must obey human orders, and protect its own existence. 

6 bots tied for fourth: Lt. Commander Data, Roy Batty, The Iron Giant, Autobots, Mechagodzilla, and Disney Pixar’s WALL-E. 

Closing Thoughts

As you binge watch robot movies to see these loved characters in action, we’ll take care of your automation needs. Just like the Tin Man needed a new heart, at MRO Electric, we provide quality new parts with quality repairs—you won’t be hassled by an evil witch either. As an independent automation distributor, our specialty is to provide new surplus and remanufactured products and top-notch services. We took some service tips from Robby the Robot.

Get Paid $1,000 to Watch Space Movies!

Title image for space movie marathon job posting


We received and enjoyed reviewing over 1,100 submissions before making a tough decision on who should take up the mantle as couch potato/space explorer extraordinaire. We are thrilled to announce that we have selected the winner of our Get Paid to Watch Space Movies job posting: Katherine Fricks!

Katherine’s inquisitive nature and passion for space travel really shone through to us and her love of all things sci-fi runs deep. She explains it best herself:

I am the daughter of an aerospace engineer who grew up learning how to say the names of the constellations and how to identify them in the night sky before I was out of diapers. When we did industry reports in fourth grade, I chose to do mine on the aerospace Industry. I learned how to build a bottle rocket launcher in fifth grade for science fair project [and] I went to space camp in California and the space academy in Alabama. I have even taught astronomy as a professor in a Harry Potter RPG forum. 

Astronomy and an admiration for space is something that has been instilled in me since I was a very young girl, particularly because my [father] was also a HUGE Trekkie. “Space, the final frontier…to explore strange new worlds. To seek out new life and new civilizations. To boldly go where no man has gone before!” became a sort of motto for which I live by.

For me, the appeal of space travel is exploration, and I remember watching the lunar landing as a little girl and thinking how amazing [it] would be to step foot on another planet. In fact, Captain Kathryn Janeway was my role model from 5th-7th grade as a strong female scientist and explorer, and those were SO rare and what draws me to Emily Calandrelli today—Emily’s Wonderlab is something I love to watch with my two sons.

I suppose were I able to go into space, I would like to assist with research on the International Space Station for a bit. I don’t know that I would want to spend months or years in space, but at least a week doing some sort of research regarding biology or astrobiology.

Good luck circling the stars from home, Katherine!

Update: Katherine zipped through the cinematic exploration of all 12 space stories and had a chance to tell us about it back here on Earth. Her analysis was deep and fascinating, cementing her as the right choice for her project. Here is what she had to say about stepping into the shoes of the main characters in The Right Stuff

The era depicted in the film is one in which astronauts and spaceflight are seen as flexes of power, where the humans riding in these capsules are seen more as tools and symbols rather than as people in a power struggle between countries. The men have to fight back against certain metaphorical manhandlings and there is immense pressure to be the perfect poster boys for the American space program. There is more concern with ‘beating the Russians’ and doing so quickly even if it means cutting a few corners. Of course, none of the men were forced to go and knew the risks associated with their particular flights and elected to go regardless, as is the case with Glenn.

I am not sure that I would be as trusting and willing in such a situation. However, Glenn’s ‘space fireflies’ (which we now know were illuminated frost flakes) was so beautifully captured in the film and seeing that view along with Earth in the background from space with its sunrises and sunsets is a sight I would very much like to see.


Think you got what it takes? Could you suit up, lock into the cockpit of a space shuttle, give your friends and family one last wave, and blast off into heavens unknown? No? Well, it’s not for everybody. At least not the everyday person. However, some of planet Earth’s ultra-rich billionaires are flaunting planet-sized wads of cash to take their shot at the stars.

Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson have now both gone to space. Even William Shatner (yes, Captain Kirk) did it. Maybe you have the stomach for it, too; maybe not. Either way, you probably won’t get the chance any time soon unless you’re a billionaire. But you can do the next best thing—and get paid for it in the process!

At MRO Electric, we’re fascinated by the automation processes and systems that make these incredible interstellar flights possible. That’s why we’re looking for someone to watch 12 space movies. And we’re offering $1,000 to the chosen applicant.

Who We’re Looking For

We’re looking for a seasoned space movie voyager willing to trade a cockpit for the couch, a space suit for pajamas, and dehydrated rations for popcorn and a Big Gulp. In addition to watching space movies, you’ll be asked to take notes and track specific details in each of the movies. 

The ideal applicant will have:

  • Overall enthusiasm for space travel
  • Love for movies, especially the science fiction genre
  • Strong attention to detail
  • The ability and availability to watch 12 movies within one month’s time

Additionally, applicants must be 18 years or older and a U.S. citizen or permanent resident to apply.

What You’ll Need to Do

We’ve narrowed down the vast galaxy of classic space movies to a list of 12 that you’ll be asked to watch over 1 month’s time.

  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • The Martian
  • Interstellar
  • Moon
  • Proxima
  • Passengers
  • Hidden Figures
  • Apollo 13
  • First Man
  • The Right Stuff
  • Gravity
  • October Sky

We will provide you with a worksheet to complete for each movie as you watch. All movies will need to be watched and all worksheets will need to be completed by December 23, 2021. We will incorporate your responses from the worksheet into a blog article to be published on the MRO Electric website.

How to Enter

To enter the contest, contestants MUST FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW to the entry form, where you’ll be asked to tell us why you’re the perfect person for this mission. Applicants’ level of enthusiasm for space travel, movies, and science fiction will be a strong factor for consideration, so provide what you need to demonstrate how and why you love these subjects the most.

The deadline for contest entries is Friday, November 26, 2021. Contestants will need to submit their applications by that date in order to be considered.

We will select and notify the winner by December 2, 2021.

What You’ll Get

The winner will receive a $1,000 payment upon satisfactory completion of watching all aforementioned movies and submitting notes taken throughout.

Contest Terms and Conditions

  1. The promoter of this competition is MRO Electric whose principal office is located at 1652 Old Apex Road Cary, NC 27513.
  2. Employees of MRO Electric or their family members or anyone else connected in any way with the competition or helping to set up the competition shall not be permitted to enter the competition.
  3. Persons must be at least 18 years old, or otherwise have reached the age of majority under the laws of the state where they reside, in order to participate.
  4. Only residents of the United States are eligible to participate.
  6. There is NO ENTRY FEE AND NO PURCHASE NECESSARY TO ENTER THIS COMPETITION. Any purchase or consideration otherwise given by entrants will not improve one’s chances of winning.
  7. The route to entry for the competition and details of how to enter are available via Individuals may enter to win by clicking on the participation link on MRO Electric’s website. Upon clicking the participation link, entrants will be asked to provide their name and contact information so that MRO Electric can notify the winner of the results.
  8. The closing date for entry will be November 26, 2021. After this date, no further entries to the competition will be permitted.
  9. Only one winner will be selected from the entire pool of eligible entries. The selection process will be at the discretion of MRO Electric. The winner will be required to complete certain tasks designated by MRO Electric. If the winner does not follow through with the tasks required of them, they will not receive the prize of $1,000.
  10. The winner will be notified by email and/or letter within 15 business days of the closing date. If the winner cannot be contacted or does not claim the prize within 2 days of notification, we reserve the right to withdraw the prize from the winner and pick a replacement winner.
  11. MRO Electric will notify the winner when and where the prize can be collected.
  12. The winner agrees to the use of his/her name, image, and video in any publicity material. Any personal data relating to the winner or any other entrants will be used solely in accordance with current federal and state data protection legislation and will not be disclosed to a third party without the entrant’s prior consent.
  13. The winner’s name will be available 28 days after the closing date by sending a stamped addressed envelope to the following address:
    • 1652 Old Apex Road Cary, NC 27513
  14. MRO Electric’s decision in respect of all matters to do with the competition will be final and no correspondence will be entered into.

The U.S. States Where You’ll Save the Most Switching from Gas to Electric Vehicles

Main graphic for how much you’ll save driving electric vs gas in every state

Pollution from cars is one of the major causes of global warming. Internal combustion engines drink fossil fuels, which are damaging to mine and toxic to refine, and belch out a cocktail of toxins like carbon monoxide, which fill our lungs and deplete our ozone. However, giving up driving, which is woven deeply into American infrastructure and culture, is easier said than done.

Recognizing that the environmental impact of cars doesn’t start on the road but in the factory, where raw materials are made and assembled, we at MRO Electric are passionate about the exodus from gas to electric vehicles (EVs). Running on electricity alone, EVs eliminate the pollution associated with supplying fuel and burning it. Additionally, they’re much cheaper to own since electricity is far more abundant and accessible than fossil fuels. 

We hope to see consumers embrace a more sustainable product and believe they will be more likely to if they see the personal financial incentive. To that end, we decided to run a study to determine where eco-conscious drivers can save the most by trading in their gas guzzlers for environmentally friendly electric alternatives.

To do so, we determined the average lifetime miles driven in each state and calculated the lifetime cost of gas and electric vehicles using the cost per gallon of gas and the cost of an eGallon in August 2021. (The eGallon measurement describes the cost to drive a comparable electric vehicle the same distance you could cover on a gallon of gasoline.) With the total cost of running both gas and electric vehicles, we subtracted the two in each state to find out where savings are most pronounced.

The results were shocking! Read on to see what we found.

Key Findings

  • No matter where you live, switching to an electric vehicle saves money. While several variables do impact the amount of savings received in each state, all 50 states and the District of Columbia come out ahead after making the switch to electric vehicles.
  • You’ll save the most money in Wyoming at $111,167.00 across 1,480,243.5 miles over 62 years. To put that into perspective, that’s an average annual savings of $1,793.00.
  • You’ll save the least money in Hawaii at $13,624.00 across 753,876 miles over 65 years. Needless to say, Hawaiians are driving less on their island community, which resulted in an average savings of $209.60 per year.
  • The Northeast is where you save the least switching from gas to electric vehicles.
  • The American heartland and midwest regions offer top savings for switching from gas to electric vehicles.
  • Lifetime miles driven was a key factor in the amount saved from switching to electric cars. The top 10 states that saved the most drive anywhere from 861,984 (Nevada) to 1,480,243.5 (Wyoming) lifetime miles while the top 10 states that save the least drive 615,589.8 miles (Rhode Island) to 872,090.25 miles (Maine) over a lifetime.

The U.S. States Where You Can Save the Most with Electric Vehicles

Map showing the states where you can save the most switching from gas to electric vehicles

Wyoming drivers save $111,167 over a lifetime of driving electric vehicles instead of gas, which is more than enough to earn the number one ranking position. As residents of the least populous U.S. state, it’s not surprising that Wyoming drivers put more miles behind them than drivers from any other state—24,069 per year on average. Multiplying that by Wyoming’s 62 average years as a driver, Wyoming residents can expect to drive nearly 1.5 million miles in their lifetimes!

With the twelfth highest cost per gallon of gasoline ($2.84) and the thirteenth lowest eGallon cost ($0.97), it’s no wonder Wyoming was poised to all leave other states in the dust. Following Wyoming’s tracks, North Dakota, Missouri, and Oklahoma can save $84,853, $84,076, and $81,778, respectively, by switching to electric vehicles.

See how the top 10 that save the most by switching to EVs stack up below.

The Top 10 States with the Most Savings

  1. Wyoming
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,480,243.50
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.84
    • eGallon Cost: $0.97
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $111,167
  1. North Dakota
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,106,204.60
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $0.85
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $84,853
  1. Missouri
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,096,072.78
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $0.85
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $84,076
  1. Oklahoma
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,044,241.00
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $0.81
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $81,778
  1. Georgia
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,083,539.40
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.72
    • eGallon Cost: $0.98
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $75,717
  1. Utah
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 968,198.40
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.84
    • eGallon Cost: $0.93
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: ​​$74,267
  1. Mississippi
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,160,024.60
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.60
    • eGallon Cost: $1.02
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $73,608
  1. Minnesota
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 1,151,548.70
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.75
    • eGallon Cost: $1.17
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $73,070
  1. Nevada
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 861,984.00
    • Regular Gas Cost: $3.10
    • eGallon Cost: $1.02
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $72,005
  1. Montana
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 968,680.00
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.84
    • eGallon Cost: $1.00
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $71,581

The U.S. States Where You Can Save the Least with Electric Vehicles

Map displaying the states that save the least when driving electric vehicles instead of gas cars

The states that save the least from adopting clean, electric fuel also had one thing in common—they don’t drive as much as the states that save the most. For example, Hawaii, the number one state that saves the least, has an average of 11,598 miles driven per year. Wyoming, the state that saves the most, doubles Hawaii’s annual driving distance with an impressive 23,874.9 miles per year. Overall, Hawaii pockets just $13,624 across an average 65-year driving career.

This trend is seen throughout the rankings, making it clear why some states save more than others. Many of the states on the bottom end of the ranking are known for their dense, tightly packed metropolitan areas where residents have less distance to cover and therefore less saving potential when switching over to electric vehicles. They are perhaps the most important converts for the environment however, with cities being the least efficient environment for internal combustion engines.

In addition, the states on the low end of our ranking pay more per eGallon, further closing the cost gap between running gas and electric vehicles. Hawaii pays the most per eGallon at $2.65, which is more than the amount five states pay for regular gas. After Hawaii, Rhode Island ($2.05), Alaska ($1.99), and Massachusetts ($1.96) pay the highest cost per eGallon and are all in the top five states that save the least by switching to electric vehicles.

See how the top 10 states that save the least by switching to electric compare.

The Top 10 States with the Least Savings

  1. Hawaii
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 753,876.00
    • Regular Gas Cost: $3.10
    • eGallon Cost: $2.65
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $13,624
  1. Rhode Island
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 615,589.80
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $2.05
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $17,553
  1. Massachusetts
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 811,447.10
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.74
    • eGallon Cost: $1.96
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $17,553
  1. Connecticut
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 758,524.20
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $1.85
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $27,721
  1. Alaska
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 682,215.40
    • Regular Gas Cost: $3.10
    • eGallon Cost: $1.99
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $30,412
  1. New York
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 647,637.90
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.83
    • eGallon Cost: $1.66
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $30,431
  1. New Hampshire
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 724,282.00
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $1.70
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $30,833
  1. Vermont
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 824,453.60
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $1.73
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $34,104
  1. Michigan
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 867,004.20
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $1.50
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $43,873
  1. Maine
    • Lifetime Miles Driven: 872,090.25
    • Regular Gas Cost: $2.76
    • eGallon Cost: $1.50
    • Lifetime Fuel Cost Savings: $44,130

Follow the Money

The following interactive line chart animates the increase in savings over time for every state. How does your state stack up? Mouse over each line for more details and click “replay” to watch the race again.

Final Thoughts

A major trend percolating throughout the rankings is that driving more equates to saving more. This makes sense because the magnitude of savings from electricity as an alternative fuel is tied to each mile driven. The more you drive and don’t pay for gas, the more you save.

Savings are also affected by total years as a driver, cost of gasoline, and cost of electricity. But  of these three variables, the cost of electricity had the largest effect on potential savings. Interestingly, there was a roughly inverse relationship between the number of miles driven and the cost of an eGallon, meaning the states that drive less also pay more for electricity.

Notably, every state saved money by switching to electric vehicles. Whether saving $209.60 per year in Hawaii or $1,793.02 per year in Wyoming, electric vehicles are beneficial for the environment and lighter on consumer wallets. There isn’t anything we can do to completely reverse the effects of global warming, but we can correct our course by adopting cleaner fuel sources.

At MRO Electric, we know the environmental impact of each vehicle begins in the factory, and we are committed to increasing manufacturing efficiency through factory automation. Whether your factory contributes to the EV industry or not, we have the parts you need to automate outdated processes and the know-how to repair malfunctioning equipment fast.


MRO Electric collected life expectancy and legal driving age from World Population Review and subtracted the two to determine average years as a driver in each state. 

The average miles driven in each state was collected from the Department of Transportation and the national average fuel efficiency was collected from the Environmental Protection Agency. Using these figures, MRO Electric determined the average number of gallons consumed over a lifetime of driving in each state.

This was multiplied by the average cost of gas and eGallon cost per state (collected from the Department of Energy) to determine the total cost of driving a gas and an electric vehicle in each state.  Finally, we subtracted these two cost numbers to arrive at the lifetime savings from switching from gas to electric vehicles in each state.

Because gas prices can fluctuate seasonally, it is important to note that all data was collected in July, 2021.

Determining Encoder Selection

What is the role of the encoder?

For any motion control process to work, a sensing device is needed to provide reliable feedback sensing. The encoder is the part of the machinery that furnishes feedback information. How does the encoder work? The encoder receives a motion signal and converts this signal into an electrical signal that can be read by some sort of motion control system, like a PLC. The motion control system then uses the signal to control conditions such as speed, direction, and position on your machinery.  This process is consistent in any application: The exchange of information between the machine and the controller through the encoder signaling generates the exact performance function.

“The core function of the encoder is to provide information about the motion of the moving parts in your system.”

Adam Gross, Lead Technician, MRO Electric

Selection requirements

What do you need to know when choosing an encoder that is right for your application? There are a couple of fundamental points when selecting which encoder is correct for the job. 

When selecting an encoder, one thing you will need to determine is the application control specifications. Applications can range from very simple machine applications to complicated machinery. Some applications are simple and require simple position or speed control with a low degree of accuracy needed, while more sophisticated machinery may need a higher level of feedback. Knowing the application of the encoder is vital in the selection process.

Another thing to consider is the encoder properties. Typically, this involves the number of rectangular pulses per motor revolution. A pulse number is delivered by two channels. The two channels have a phase shift of one-quarter of a pulse length, sometimes referred to as quadcounts. In this way, motor rotation direction can be detected using the four distinct states per single pulse. These four pulses represent the real resolution. For instance, if an encoder has 2,000 counts per pulse term; it gives 8,000 states per turn, which determines a nominal resolution of 360/8000=0.045°. Encoders detect motion encompassing a wide range of counts per turn. That means you must decide whether your application requires a simple encoder with fewer CPT or a more complex encoder that can detect an extremely accurate position or speed. 

Other factors can impact resolution. The mechanical layout is a consideration for encoder resolution as well as other influences like analog or digital signals. Underlying physical foundations like optical, magnetic, or inductive principles can also play a part in encoder resolution. 

Exposure to specific environmental elements factors into selection consideration as well. The encoder may require a shield if it is in an environment where it is likely to be exposed to conditions such as dust, moisture, or corrosive chemicals. Encoders are susceptible to environmental extremes such as temperature, shock, or vibration.

Encoder Types

A simple approach to guide your determination in encoder options is to characterize the type of movement the encoder is monitoring. There are three commonly used encoders: Linear, rotary, and angle encoders.

 The linear encoder is an encoder that senses the movement of linear objects to encode position.  A scale is determined that allows the sensor to convert the encoded position into a signal that could be analog or digital. The signal can then be decoded into a position by a motion control system. Machining tools use the linear encoder to coordinate measuring machines, such as a cut length application. In cut-length applications, the control device and encoder determine how much of a particular item, such as cloth material, is fed through the machinery, measuring where to cut. Sometimes a cable is run between an encoder and a moving object, using a transducer to produce an analog or digital output signal to establish the movement or position of the object.

For rotating objects, a rotary encoder is used. Providing feedback about the movement of a rotating object or device, a rotary encoder converts the angular position of the moving shaft into an analog or digital output signal. This signal is used to allow a control system to determine the position or speed of the shaft. Rotary encoders can be mounted directly to a motor or any machinery with a rotating shaft and are sometimes called shaft encoders. The two main types of rotary encoders are the absolute encoder and the incremental encoder.  What is the difference between the two? The difference is in the output.

The absolute encoder indicates the current shaft position, while the incremental encoder provides information about the motion of the shaft. The Absolute encoder is an angle transducer, whereas the incremental encoder typically processes information such as speed, position, and distance. Applications for the rotary encoder involve such things as robotics and industrial controls, which require monitoring and/or control.

Angle encoders are like rotary encoders; however, they are more apt to offer higher accuracy. It measures the angular position of a rotating shaft. A disc-shaped rotator uses an optical grating that operates with an optoelectric sensor on the stator. Because optical technology is dependent on the tightly constrained rotation of the rotor in relation to a stator, an angle encoder is used to keep the two parts concentric using bearings.

Encoders have the potential to elevate performance and increase productivity through their sensing technology. Selection consideration includes many aspects, some of which are presented above. For a closer look at the encoders offered at MRO Electric, please visit our website, or give us a call.

History of the PCB – The ABCs of PCBs

The history of the PCB is relatively new, but as complicated and fascinating as the printed circuit boards themselves. Before the last half-century or so, few could have imagined how tiny traces on a printed circuit board, or PCB, connected with port headers and sockets, would fire up and function to make modern electronics possible. Before the PCB came along, each of those connecting traces required an intricate network of tangled wires to connect them. Building a TV or a computer required a complex mass of individual wires; and was a time-consuming, tedious undertaking.

Although the first circuit board patent design was in 1925 when American inventor, Charles Ducas, stenciled conductive materials onto a flat wooden board, it wasn’t until 1936 when Paul Eisler developed the first printed circuit board for use in a radio set. Eisler aided the American and British forces in the development of proximity fuses. These fuses, used by the military, were used in developing mines, bombs, and artillery shells during WWII.  After the war, the U.S. Army released the PCB technology to the public. Eisler’s idea went to the next level; by embedding wires onto a flat piece of fiberglass, later used as a more advanced PCB design. The PCB was the new, exciting component that would make electronics less cumbersome and far easier to incorporate into the ever-growing world of technology.

Read More

AC Servo Beginner Guide

For someone who is new to servo mechanisms and configurations, the features of the servo motor may seem a little daunting. Even after years of experience, I still get a moment of nervous anticipation when I press the START button. Anything that can go wrong, will occasionally go wrong. Becoming familiar with the servo system alleviates the unknown and reduces obstacles to a stable, steady-running servo system.

Servo? Servo Mechanism? Servo control system?

When first becoming acquainted with servo systems, you see these three terms and wonder, “What’s the difference?”   These terms are interchangeable and simply refer to a control mechanism that monitors physical quantities. These qualities could refer to speed, torque, position, and such. The word servo comes from the Latin word for servant, and that is precisely the function of the servo. It takes on the appointed tasks assigned by the programmer and faithfully carries out instructions with precision.

According to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) terminology, a “servo mechanism” is defined as a mechanism that uses the position, direction, or orientation of an object as a process variable to control a system to follow any changed in a target value (set point). More simply, a servo mechanism is a control mechanism that monitors physical quantities such as specified positions. Feedback control is normally performed by a servo mechanism.

Soure: JIS B0181

There are two ways to help define a servo system. It is a mechanism that first moves at a specified speed and second it locates an object in a specified position.  For the servo system to function, an automatic control system must be designed using feedback control, or a control that returns process variables to the input side and forms a closed loop. How does feedback control operate? It controls the output data to match the input data by detecting the machine position (output data) and feeding the data back to the input. The system then compares it with the specified position (input data) which accordingly moves the machine by the difference between the compared data. For example, let’s say your specified position changes. The servo system will recognize the position change and will change accordingly. In this example, the servo system reflected the changes identified by the specified position being altered. The input data is the position in this example, but input data determines other input as well. It may be identifying any physical change such as orientation (angle) water pressure, or voltage. Some other values typically used as control values include position speed, force, electric current, to name a few.

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KUKA Creating a Fusion of Technology and Art

KUKA, a German manufacturer, is known globally for production, performing automation tasks such as welding and assembly. However, coming up this Fall, the prominent industrial group will be dipping its toe into another kind of performance.

KUKA Robotics Ballet Experience

This is not the first time KUKA has branched out to the arts to showcase the future of automation. In the past, KUKA has been displayed as part of an art installation at the Jewish Museum in Berlin. The installation showcased a KUKA robot writing Hebrew across a roll of paper at the speed of human writing using a quill and ink. During a festival in Düsseldorf in 2019, Huang Yi, a dancer, and choreographer, found a dance partner in a KUKA KR CYBERTECH. And at the Ars Electronica Festival in Linz, Austria, a festival that celebrates the connection of arts and technology and their relation to the human experience, KUKA was a part of the “Creative Robotics” exhibition. The exhibition explored the role of robots and creative expression.

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Siemens Alarms SINUMERIK 840D sl, SINAMICS S120 Alarm Diagnostics

Accurately diagnosing faults and alarms as quickly and specifically as possible help achieve optimal performance and helps avoid mechanical failures. When the integrity of your automation system is monitored inefficiently it impacts all the components and can negatively influence performance and alter cost efficiency for overall building operation. Whether you are a project engineer, commissioning engineer, machine operator, or service/maintenance personnel, adopting fault detection in building management is a key strategy to cut costs, save energy, and better use resources.

Understanding Siemens diagnostics

We will be covering Siemens alarms and messages from the NC area, HMI, and SINAMICS. This article will aid in three areas.

· Assess special machine operation situations.

· Ascertain the reaction of the system.

· Use applicable possibilities for continued operation.

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Fanuc Series 0i Alarms and Error Codes

Chances are, if you are working in the automation industry, you are familiar with the intricacies that go into the myriad of connections within the CNC system.  What are some of the parts that comprise the CNC system? A few of the components included within the CNC machining system are the Central processing unit (CPU), input devices, machine control panel, programmable logic controller (PLC), servo-control unit, and display unit.  These parts work together to deliver precision and power to your automation or manufacturing industry.

With all that encompasses the CNC system, what could go wrong? As it turns out, the multitude of exchanges in areas like data and power can lend itself to unforeseen fault issues.  Plenty of misfiring and faulty connectivity occurs on the plant floor producing fault codes. Rapidly identifying a fault delivers an early opportunity to correct it. Early intervention contributes to benefits in time and money.

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5 Leading Alarm System Mistakes to Avoid

Effectively discerning the alarm codes is an important element in proper management, but it is only a part of the equation. Improperly arranged alarm systems can unwittingly self-sabotage which can unintentionally pose several problems. Poorly arranged alarm systems are a potential safety risk and can financially affect the bottom line as well as the potential to infringe on the environment. Passive alarm settings lack the ability to acclimate to diverse manufacturing conditions. Operators are only as accurate as the alarms informing them, which is why we put together this list of the 5 leading alarm system mistakes to avoid.

The primary mechanism for identifying system interruptions is the alarm code. It is the first line of defense for the plant operator, analyzing and determining correct and rapid action necessary to control plant interruption. Operators must be familiar with a myriad of alarms, but more importantly, they can learn from the alarms to avoid them with the proper settings.

What exactly is the alarm management process?

Having a template to work with is recommended in every undertaking and is particularly crucial with alarm management. Shedding light on the process of alarm management is an excellent way to begin assembling tools to engineer a clear and concise plan. What are the steps to follow? In almost every industry, the following six steps are generally accepted as a tried-and-true blueprint for structuring the alarm management process. The six steps are:

  1. Gauging baseline
  2. Alarm philosophy
  3. Rationalization
  4. Implementation
  5. Renovation
  6. Maintenance
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