Tag Archives: troubleshooting

G Codes

G Codes

G Codes

As a generic name for a plain-text language in which CNC machine are able to understand, G-Codes are important to understand in the manufacturing, automation and engineering spaces. You can enter a G-Code manually if you wish, but you do not have to because of the CAD/CAM software’ abilities along with the machine controller.  G-Codes are not necessarily readable by humans, but it’s possible to look through the file and determine what is generally occurring.

In the factory automation space, nobody likes downtime and receiving error codes. While using CNCs (view FANUC CNC parts here), many professionals are faced with G Codes. By definition, a G Code is a computer code language that is used to guide CNC machine devices to perform specific motions. A few examples of specific motions would be:

  • canned cycles
  • work coordinates
  • several repetitive cycles.
G Codes: canned cycles-

Also referred to as a fixed cycle, canned cycles are ways to effectively and efficiently perform repetitive CNC machining operations. They automate specific machining functions. A few examples would be pocketing, threading, and drilling. A canned cycle is almost always stored as a pre-program in a machine’s controller. To learn more about canned cycles, check out this article courtesy of zero-divide.net.

G Codes: work coordinates-

The G Code coordinate pipeline goes something like this:

  • Unit conversion to metric
  • Convert from relative to absolute and polar to Cartesian: g90g91XYZ()
  • G52, G54, and G92 offsets
  • G51 scaling
  • G68 coordinate rotation

G-Code is the most popular programming language used for programming CNC machinery. Some G words alter the state of the machine so that it changes from cutting straight lines to cutting arcs. Other G words cause the interpretation of numbers as millimeters rather than inches. Some G words set or remove tool length or diameter offsets. Be sure to check out our article covering FANUC CNC Codes here.

MRO Electric and Supply has new and refurbished FANUC CNC parts available. We also offer repair pricing. For more information, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.

Tool Parameters, Feeds, and Speeds

Listed below are some easily-understood G-code commands in which are used for setting the speed, feed, and tool parameters.

F= Feed

The F command’s purpose is to set the feed rate. Keep in mind, the machine operates at the specified speed rate when G1 is used, G1 commands are set to operate at the set F value.

An error is likely to occur if the feed rate (F) isn’t set once before the first G1 call.  Here is an example:

  • G1 F1500 X100 Y100

S= Spindle Speed

The S command’s purpose is to set the spindle speed. The Spindle speed is almost always set in RPMs (revolutions per minute). Here is an example:

  • S10000

T= Tool

The T command’s purpose is paired with M6 in order to display the tool number to be used for cutting the current file. Here is an example:

  • M6 T1
Below is a complete listing of G Codes:
  • G00     Rapid traverse 
  • G01     Linear interpolation with feed rate
  • G02     Circular interpolation (clockwise)
  • G03     Circular interpolation (counterclockwise)
  • G2/G3   Helical interpolation
  • G04     Dwell time in milliseconds
  • G05     Spline definition
  • G06     Spline interpolation
  • G07     Tangential circular interpolation, Helix interpolation, Polygon interpolation, Feedrate interpolation
  • G08     Ramping function at block transition / Look ahead “off”
  • G09     No ramping function at block transition / Look ahead “on”
  • G10     Stop dynamic block preprocessing
  • G11     Stop interpolation during block preprocessing
  • G12     Circular interpolation (CW) with radius
  • G13     Circular interpolation (CCW) with radius
  • G14     Polar coordinate programming, absolute
  • G15     Polar coordinate programming, relative
  • G16     Definition of the pole point of the polar coordinate system
  • G17     Selection of the X, Y plane
  • G18     Selection of the Z, X plane
  • G19     Selection of the Y, Z plane
  • G20     Selection of a freely definable plane
  • G21     Parallel axes “on”
  • G22     Parallel axes “off”
  • G24     Safe zone programming; lower limit values
  • G25     Safe zone programming; upper limit values
  • G26     Safe zone programming “off”
  • G27     Safe zone programming “on”
  • G33     Thread cutting with constant pitch
  • G34     Thread cutting with dynamic pitch
  • G35     Oscillation configuration
  • G38     Mirror imaging “on”
  • G39     Mirror imaging “off”
  • G40     Path compensations “off”
  • G41     Path compensation left of the workpiece contour
  • G42     Path compensation right of the workpiece contour
  • G43     Path compensation left of the workpiece contour with altered approach
  • G44     Path compensation right of the workpiece contour with altered approach
  • G50     Scaling
  • G51     Part rotation; programming in degrees
  • G52     Part rotation; programming in radians
  • G53     Zero offset off
  • G54     Zero offset #1
  • G55     Zero offset #2
  • G56     Zero offset #3
  • G57     Zero offset #4
  • G58     Zero offset #5
  • G59     Zero offset #6
  • G63 Feed/spindle override not active
  • G66 Feed/spindle override active
  • G70     Inch format active
  • G71     Metric format active
  • G72     Interpolation with precision stop “off”
  • G73     Interpolation with precision stop “on”
  • G74     Move to home position
  • G75     Curvature function activation
  • G76     Curvature acceleration limit
  • G78     Normalcy function “on” (rotational axis orientation)
  • G79     Normalcy function “off”
G80 – G89 for milling applications:
  • G80     Canned cycle “off”
  • G81     Drilling to final depth canned cycle
  • G82     Spot facing with dwell time canned cycle
  • G83     Deep hole drilling canned cycle
  • G84     Tapping or Thread cutting with balanced chuck canned cycle
  • G85     Reaming canned cycle
  • G86     Boring canned cycle
  • G87     Reaming with measuring stop canned cycle
  • G88     Boring with spindle stop canned cycle
  • G89     Boring with intermediate stop canned cycle
G81 – G88 for cylindrical grinding applications:
  • G81     Reciprocation without plunge
  • G82     Incremental face grinding
  • G83     Incremental plunge grinding
  • G84     Multi-pass face grinding
  • G85     Multi-pass diameter grinding
  • G86     Shoulder grinding
  • G87     Shoulder grinding with face plunge
  • G88     Shoulder grinding with diameter plunge
  • G90     Absolute programming
  • G91     Incremental programming
  • G92     Position preset
  • G93     Constant tool circumference velocity “on” (grinding wheel)
  • G94     Feed in mm / min (or inch / min)
  • G95     Feed per revolution (mm / rev or inch / rev)
  • G96     Constant cutting speed “on”
  • G97     Constant cutting speed “off”
  • G98     Positioning axis signal to PLC
  • G99     Axis offset
  • G100   Polar transformation “off”
  • G101   Polar transformation “on”
  • G102   Cylinder barrel transformation “on”; cartesian coordinate system
  • G103   Cylinder barrel transformation “on,” with real-time-radius compensation (RRC)
  • G104   Cylinder barrel transformation with centerline migration (CLM) and RRC
  • G105   Polar transformation “on” with polar axis selections
  • G106   Cylinder barrel transformation “on” polar-/cylinder-coordinates
  • G107   Cylinder barrel transformation “on” polar-/cylinder-coordinates with RRC
  • G108   Cylinder barrel transformation polar-/cylinder-coordinates with CLM and RRC
  • G109   Axis transformation programming of the tool depth
  • G110   Power control axis selection/channel 1
  • G111   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 1 (Voltage, Frequency, Time)
  • G112   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 1
  • G113   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 1
  • G114   Power control pre-selection T4/channel 1
  • G115   Power control pre-selection T5/channel 1
  • G116   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output
  • G117   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output
  • G120   Axis transformation; orientation changing of the linear interpolation rotary axis
  • G121   Axis transformation; orientation change in a plane
  • G125   Electronic gearbox; plain teeth
  • G126   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, axial
  • G127   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, tangential
  • G128   Electronic gearbox; helical gearing, diagonal
  • G130   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G131   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G132   Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change
  • G133   Zero lag thread cutting “on”
  • G134   Zero lag thread cutting “off”
  • G140   Axis transformation; orientation designation workpiece fixed coordinates
  • G141   Axis transformation; orientation designation active coordinates
  • G160   ART activation
  • G161   ART learning function for velocity factors “on”
  • G162   ART learning function deactivation
  • G163   ART learning function for acceleration factors
  • G164   ART learning function for acceleration changing
  • G165   Command filter “on”
  • G166   Command filter “off”
  • G170   Digital measuring signals; block transfer with hard stop
  • G171   Digital measuring signals; block transfer without hard stop
  • G172   Digital measuring signals; block transfer with smooth stop
  • G175   SERCOS-identification number “write”
  • G176   SERCOS-identification number “read”
  • G180   Axis transformation “off”
  • G181   Axis transformation “on” with not rotated coordinate system
  • G182   Axis transformation “on” with rotated/displaced coordinate system
  • G183   Axis transformation; definition of the coordinate system
  • G184   Axis transformation; programming tool dimensions
  • G186   Look ahead; corner acceleration; circle tolerance
  • G188   Activation of the positioning axes
  • G190   Diameter programming deactivation
  • G191   Diameter programming “on” and display of the contact point
  • G192   Diameter programming; only display contact point diameter
  • G193   Diameter programming; only display contact point actual axes center point
  • G200   Corner smoothing “off”
  • G201   Corner smoothing “on” with defined radius
  • G202   Corner smoothing “on” with defined corner tolerance
  • G203   Corner smoothing with defined radius up to maximum tolerance
  • G210   Power control axis selection/Channel 2
  • G211   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/Channel 2
  • G212   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/Channel 2
  • G213   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/Channel 2
  • G214   Power control pre-selection T4/Channel 2
  • G215   Power control pre-selection T5/Channel 2
  • G216   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 2
  • G217   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 2
  • G220   Angled wheel transformation “off”
  • G221   Angled wheel transformation “on”
  • G222   Angled wheel transformation “on” but angled wheel moves before others
  • G223   Angled wheel transformation “on” but angled wheel moves after others
  • G265   Distance regulation – axis selection
  • G270   Turning finishing cycle
  • G271   Stock removal in turning
  • G272   Stock removal in facing
  • G274   Peck finishing cycle
  • G275   Outer diameter / internal diameter turning cycle
  • G276   Multiple pass threading cycle
  • G310   Power control axes selection /channel 3
  • G311   Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 3
  • G312   Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 3
  • G313   Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 3
  • G314   Power control pre-selection T4/channel 3
  • G315   Power control pre-selection T5/channel 3
  • G316   Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 3
  • G317   Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 3

 

In conclusion, becoming well-versed on CNC G-Codes, along with other codes associated with CNCs is imperative in this day and age. By having up-to-speed knowledge of CNC codes, you could most definitely set yourself apart from the average Joe.

 

Micromaster 420

Siemens Micromaster 420 Faults and Alarms

 Siemens Micromaster 420 Faults and Alarms

A blog we posted earlier this week about the Micromaster 420 troubleshooting referenced the Faults and Alarms list for the Micromaster series, so we decided that it would make sense to make the list of Micromaster 420 Faults and Alarms directly available. This is from the corresponding manual for the Micromaster 420 series, but it is buried within the manual which most people most likely don’t even have. Hopefully, this helps with your troubleshooting.

Check out our article touching on Siemens Simodrive E/R Module Fault Troubleshooting, along with other Siemens series coverage.

View our 420 Micromaster Drives in stock. For more information or to request a quote, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com. We also provide pre-priced Micromaster 420 Repairs.

Continue reading Siemens Micromaster 420 Faults and Alarms

Simodrive E/R Troubleshooting for 6SN1145-1BA02-0CA1

 

6SN1145-1BA02-0CA1
6SN1145-1BA02-0CA1

We often have people who are having issues with their current drive setup but can’t confirm that a specific drive in their system is the issue. They are all but sure, but understandably want to confirm the problem before buying a replacement from us, so we have a set of troubleshooting procedures issued from Siemens that we can send out so that people can confirm that they have a problem. Last week a customer was replacing a Siemens 6SN1145-1BA02-0CA1 module and wanted to troubleshoot their I/R module, so we’ve listed the troubleshooting procedures in the table below to help with  Simodrive E/R Troubleshooting.

For a full list of the Siemens Simodrives that we have available you can visit the section on our website here. To request a quote, please call us at 1-800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com

Continue reading Simodrive E/R Troubleshooting for 6SN1145-1BA02-0CA1

Micromaster 420

Siemens Micromaster 420 Troubleshooting Tips

Often people have difficulty installing a replacement drive that we send out, and normally it just takes the troubleshooting tips from the manual to get them up and running. However, the manual isn’t always the easiest to find or sort through, so below we’re posting the Siemens Micromaster 420 Troubleshooting section from the manual which should help anyone who is working to get the issues with their drive sorted out.

MRO Electric supplies and repairs Micromaster 420 Drives. To request a quote for a repair or spare, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.

Continue reading Siemens Micromaster 420 Troubleshooting Tips

Troubleshooting a Fanuc Motor

Here are some basic principles for troubleshooting a FANUC motor circuits with meter or megohm meter. This procedure will show you how to test for shorts in windings, cables, or opens. Before starting to test, make sure to turn all all the power sources to the machine and then disconnect the 3-phase motor lines from the drive end. Visually confirm that there are no problems with the cable and then begin testing.

Testing for a short to ground:

  • Using an Ohm meter: Disconnect all power from machine. Check all three wires at T1, T2, and T3 (all three phases) to the ground wire. The readings for this should be infinite, and if it is zero or reads any continuity then there is a problem with the motor or the cable. For this disconnect the cable and check each separately. Be sure to make sure leads on both ends are not touching anything, including the other leads. Most servo motor shorts can be ready with a regular quality  meter going to at least 10 megaohms.
  • Using a Megohm meter: Disconnect all power from machine. Check all three wires at T1, T2, and T3 (all three phases) to the ground wire. Reading should be between 600-2000 Megohms. Most shorts will be below 20 Megohms. Be careful not to touch the leads or the wires to anything when taking the reading because it can give a false reading. There should be about 1000 Ohms of resistance for each volt of incoming power, but this is not a standard rule. If it is 230meg to 600meg there may be deterioration in the cable.

Testing for Open or Short in the windings:

  • Using an Ohm meter: Disconnect all power from the machine. Put meter on ohms and test T1 to T2, T2 to T3, and T1 to T3. The range should be between 0.3 and 2.0 ohms, with most being at about 0.8 ohms. If it is zero there is a short between the two phases. If it is an open the reading will be infinite or well above 2,000 ohms.
  • Cable and plug notes: Often times the connector on the cable to the motor will get coolant in it. You can dry it out an retest, if it is still bad the inserts will get burn marks in them and cause a slight short, so they need to be replaced. If it is a DC motor, check the brushes. There should be 3-4 round caps to remove around the motor. Under these there is a spring with a square block (brush). Check to see how much is left, they may need to be replaced.

 

MRO Electric has a large stock of FANUC motors available. If you would like a replacement or spare, or if you have any questions, please call 800-691-8511 or email sales@mroelectric.com.
FANUC Motors
FANUC Motors

Simodrive F-16 Alarm Code Troubleshooting

We recently had a customer install a replacement 6SN1121-0BA11-0AA1 card into a 6SN1123-1AA00-0EA1 power module. When they installed the card it came up with an F-16 alarm code on the display of it, which references an “Illegal Power Module.” Using the instructions in the manual for the start-up of a replacement Simodrive card or power module we were able to get the customer back up and running with the steps below.

Continue reading Simodrive F-16 Alarm Code Troubleshooting

Control Techniques Focus 3 Drives Troubleshooting

 

The Control Techniques Focus 3 drive is a single-phase analog drive for DC motors.  The Focus 3 provides anywhere from ¼ to 5 horsepower and has 2 regenerative and 2 non-regenerative chassis units.  Several measures can be taken to keep your drive functioning its best:

  • Be sure to keep your drive free of dust, dirt, oil, caustic atmosphere and excessive moisture.
  • The control should always be set away from any machines that have a high ambient temperature.
  • Air flow should not be restricted by other equipment.
  • Keep the drive away from high vibration areas that could cause the connections to loosen or chafe the wires.

Continue reading Control Techniques Focus 3 Drives Troubleshooting

Control Techniques Commander SE HF Trip Codes

Commander SE
Commander SE

The Control Techniques Commander SE Microdrive series is an AC open loop vector that provides great flexibility as well as a small footprint.  Although this series is reliable you may encounter one of the HF Trip codes listed below.  These codes are a result of an internal error in the drive.  Most often these trip codes can be resolved by powering down and allowing the drive sit for 5 minutes before powering up again.

If the HF Fault code does not clear then your drive will likely require a repair.

Continue reading Control Techniques Commander SE HF Trip Codes

Booting the Siemens PCU 20 and PCU 50

When booting the Siemens PCU that you have installed, it should be a relatively simple process, but there can be some problems that come up, so we wanted to go through a few to help anyone who is having issues. When the power supply is switched on, the PCU boots automatically. The system software is installed in the factory and is ready to run. The basic display appears on the screen if the MMC has booted successfully

Continue reading Booting the Siemens PCU 20 and PCU 50

Reloading Siemens Sinumerik Start-up Archive Files

Reloading Siemens Sinumerik Start-up Archive Files for the NC and PLC

1. Using OP, (Operator Panel) select hardkey Machine  then Menu select
Observe:  The main operating areas horizontal softkey menu appears.   Machine, Parameter, Program, Services, Diagnosis and Start-up.
2. Using OP, select softkey Services
Observe:  Current operating area is displayed at top left of display.
3. Using OP, select the hardkey  (etc…/extension of the softkey menu key).
Observe:  Horizontal softkey menu contains a key labeled Series start-up
NOTE: If softkey Series start-up does not appear then the password access rights need to be  set. See the procedure Setting Password Access rights Page 3.
4.     Using OP, select horizontal softkey Series start-up.
Observe:  Display shows ‘Create series startup archive’ window.
NOTE: If Display shows Read startup archive window, skip step 5
5. Using OP, select vertical softkey Read start-up archive
Observe:  A new window will appear, labeled Read Series Start-up Archive.
6. Using OP cursor keys highlight the appropriate NC or PLC archive file.
Note:  The backup files are created by the builder and / or end user and the specific name may vary.   Suggestion: Select a file which refers to the NC or PLC and has the most recent date
7. Using OP, press the vertical softkey Start.
Observe:  The window will shift to the Job Log display.  a. Answer the query ‘Do you wish to perform a series start-up?’  By pressing the               vertical softkey Yes.  b. A series of prompts will appear, telling you the status of the upload of the various    series start-up files from the NC archive.  c. The message ‘NC Reset – Please wait’ will now appear as many as 6 times. This is   normal.  d. The control will shift back to the Read Series Start-up Archive display.
8. If necessary, repeat steps 6 and 7, selecting the appropriate archive file, to load both the NC and the PLC.

Continue reading Reloading Siemens Sinumerik Start-up Archive Files